passive verb forms n.
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PASSIVE VERB FORMS

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  1. PASSIVE VERB FORMS

  2. ACTIVE v. PASSIVE • If the verb is ACTIVE, the subject performs the action – e.g dominus servum pulsat • If the verb is PASSIVE, the subject is on the receiving need of action by somebody or somebody else – e.g servus ā dominō pulsātur • Englishmakes passive verbs by using past participle plus is/are/am/was/were etc. – e.g The slave is hit by Caecilius. • Latin uses a method rather like English in the perfect tenses but for the present, imperfect and future it uses a special element (r) and combines this in different ways with the active verb endings.

  3. BASIC ENDINGS • In tenses formed from the present stem (viz. present tense itself, future and imperfect), the passive endings are formed by a combination of the suffix -r with the active endings, except for the 2nd person plural ending which is taken from an obsolete passive present participle: ACTIVE PASSIVE • ō/m - or/r • s - ris • t - tur • mus - mur • tis - minī • nt - ntur • A short i in the 2nd. Person singular changes to e in front of ris • In the present tense of the 1st., 2nd. and 4th. conjugations, the imperfect of all conjugations and the future of 3rd and 4th conjugation verbs, the short vowel before –t in the 3rd. person sing becomes long (e.g. amat > amātur, capiēbat > capiēbātur, reget > regētur ). This is because the original long vowel in the base of the form is shortened before a final-tbut not before a non-final –t-

  4. Present Tense - infinitive in –āre (pass. -ārī ) amor

  5. Present Tense - infinitive in –āre (pass. -ārī ) amor amāris

  6. Present Tense - infinitive in –āre (pass. -ārī ) amor amāris amātur

  7. Present Tense - infinitive in –āre (pass. -ārī ) amor amāris amātur amāmur

  8. Present Tense - infinitive in –āre (pass. -ārī ) amor amāris amātur amāmur amāminī

  9. Present Tense - infinitive in –āre (pass. -ārī ) amor amāris amātur amāmur amāminī amantur

  10. Present Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in ērī) moneor

  11. Present Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in ērī) moneor monēris

  12. Present Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in ērī) moneor monēris monētur

  13. Present Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in ērī) moneor monēris monētur monēmur

  14. Present Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in ērī) moneor monēris monētur monēmur monēminī

  15. Present Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in ērī) moneor monēris monētur monēmur monēminī monentur

  16. Present Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regor

  17. Present Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regor regeris

  18. Present Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regor regeris regitur

  19. Present Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regor regeris regitur regimur

  20. Present Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regor regeris regitur regimur regiminī

  21. Present Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regor regeris regitur regimur regiminī reguntur

  22. Present Tense - infinitive in –īre (passive in - īrī) audior

  23. Present Tense - infinitive in –īre (passive in - īrī) audior audīris

  24. Present Tense - infinitive in –īre (passive in - īrī) audior audīris audīt ur

  25. Present Tense - infinitive in –īre (passive in - īrī) audior audīris audīt ur audīmur

  26. Present Tense - infinitive in –īre (passive in - īrī) audior audīris audīt ur audīmur audīminī

  27. Present Tense - infinitive in –īre (passive in - īrī) audior audīris audīt ur audīmur audīminī audiuntur

  28. Present Tense - 1st. Pers. sing. in –iō and infinitive in –ere (passive infinitive in –ī) capior

  29. Present Tense - 1st. Pers. sing. in –iō and infinitive in –ere (passive infinitive in –ī) capior caperis

  30. Present Tense - 1st. Pers. sing. in –iō and infinitive in –ere (passive infinitive in –ī) capior caperis capitur

  31. Present Tense - 1st. Pers. sing. in –iō and infinitive in –ere (passive infinitive in –ī) capior caperis capitur capimur

  32. Present Tense - 1st. Pers. sing. in –iō and infinitive in –ere (passive infinitive in –ī) capior caperis capitur capimur capiminī

  33. Present Tense - 1st. Pers. sing. in –iō and infinitive in –ere (passive infinitive in –ī) capior caperis capitur capimur capiminī capiuntur

  34. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –āre (passive in –ārī) amābar

  35. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –āre (passive in –ārī) amābar amābāris

  36. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –āre (passive in –ārī) amābar amābāris amābātur

  37. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –āre (passive in –ārī) amābar amābāris amābātur amābāmur

  38. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –āre (passive in –ārī) amābar amābāris amābātur amābāmur amābāminī

  39. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –āre (passive in –ārī) amābar amābāris amābātur amābāmur amābāminī amābantur

  40. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in –ērī) monēbar

  41. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in –ērī) monēbar monēbāris

  42. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in –ērī) monēbar monēbāris monēbātur

  43. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in –ērī) monēbar monēbāris monēbātur monēbāmur

  44. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in –ērī) monēbar monēbāris monēbātur monēbāmur monēbāminī

  45. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ēre (passive in –ērī) monēbar monēbāris monēbātur monēbāmur monēbāminī monēbantur

  46. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regēbar

  47. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regēbar regēbāris

  48. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regēbar regēbāris regēbātur

  49. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regēbar regēbāris regēbātur regēbāmur

  50. Imperfect Tense - infinitive in –ere (passive in –ī) regēbar regēbāris regēbātur regēbāmur regēbāminī