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Physical Fitness. COL Barbara Springer, PhD, PT Director, Proponency Office for Rehabilitation and Reintegration Office of The Surgeon General. Outline. Definitions. Metrics. Definitions. Physical fitness -The US Dept of Health and Human Services separates it into 2 categories:

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Physical fitness

Physical Fitness

COL Barbara Springer, PhD, PT

Director, Proponency Office for

Rehabilitation and Reintegration

Office of The Surgeon General


  • Definitions

  • Metrics


  • Physical fitness-The US Dept of Health and Human Services separates it into 2 categories:

    • Health-related fitness-The amount of physical activity required to reduce the risk of disease or injury

    • Performance-related fitness-The amount of physical activity required to achieve a physical goal

  • Military physical fitness-The ability to physically accomplish all aspects of the mission while remaining healthy/uninjured

Definitions con t
Definitions (con’t)

  • Physical Fitness Training-Consists of 4 major components: endurance, mobility, strength, and flexibility

    • Endurance-The body’s ability to continue to accomplish a task over and over again

    • Mobility-The ability to move the body in space with the precision necessary to negotiate an obstacle

    • Strength-The ability to move an object in space

    • Flexibility-Having the joint range of motion and muscle length required to move the body through space

Basics of physical fitness training
Basics of Physical Fitness Training


    • Progression

    • Regularity

    • Overload

    • Variety

    • Recovery

    • Balance

    • Specificity

Leading causes of deployment non battle injuries army oif medical evacuations 2003 2008
Leading Causes of Deployment Non-Battle InjuriesArmy OIF Medical Evacuations,2003-2008

Source: USACHPPM Deployment Injury Surveillance System

Garrison injuries


Associated Activities


PT (other)


Road Marching




Garrison Injuries

Usachppm top 10 injury prevention priorities
USACHPPM Top 10 Injury Prevention Priorities

Results of a prioritization process conducted by Army members of the DoD Health Affairs Military Injury Prevention Priorities Working Group, 2006

What we look like now
What We Look Like Now




Battle focused training1
Battle Focused Training

  • Injury rates: What the research tells us

    • Fewer miles run per week = fewer injuries

Where we need to go
Where We Need To Go




Overcome resistance

Sustain activity

Movement proficiency

The physical training program
The Physical Training Program

  • Endurance

  • Mobility

  • Strength

  • Flexibility

Metrics included in physical therapists in the bct manual
MetricsIncluded in Physical Therapists in the BCT Manual

  • Screening

    • Functional Movement Screen (FMS)

    • Y Balance

  • Performance (in addition to the APFT)

    • Illinois Agility Test

    • Medicine Ball Put

    • Vertical Leap

    • 40 Yard Dash

    • Pull ups/Flexed Arm Hang

  • Injury Surveillance

Functional movement screen
Functional Movement Screen

Y balance
Y Balance

Assess physical performance

Identify chronic ankle instability

Identify risk for LE injury

Screen for sports/activities

Those with asymmetrical movement 2.7x more likely to sustain LE injury

Those with decreased forward reach

2.6x more likely to sustain LE injury

Improves with training

Good reliability

Medicine ball put
Medicine Ball Put

This is a 2- handed upper body explosive power measure

Sit in a chair placed against the wall with back firmly against the chair and feet flat on the floor

Hold 2-kg medicine ball on chest and push ball forward with as much power as possible

Final score: furthest distance of 3, measured from the front leg of the chair to where the middle of ball lands

Best to put measuring tape on ground before the throws

Vertical leap
Vertical Leap

Lower body mobility measure

Stands side on a wall and reaches up with the hand closest to wall

Keeping the feet flat on the ground, the point of the fingertips is marked with chalk

Steps slightly away from wall, and jumps vertically as high as possible using both arms and legs to assist in projecting the body upwards

Attempts to touch the wall at the highest point of the jump

Score: The difference in distance between reach height and jump height

Record best of 3 attempts

40 yard dash
40 Yard Dash

  • A mobility measure

  • Begin at the start line in a 3 point stance

  • On the command “Go” explode into a straight sprint for 40 yards

  • Record best time of 3 trials

Pull ups males
Pull ups (Males)

Upper body strength measure

Hang freely from bar with palms facing away and elbows completely extended before starting

Pull body upwards until chin is above bar

Then lower to the start position ensuring elbows have extended completely

Count reps (at top)

Flexed arm hang females
Flexed Arm Hang (Females)

Upper Body endurance measure

Pull up bar: high enough to hang freely

Soldier is lifted or steps up into position with elbows flexed and chin held above bar

Palms should face away from her

Time starts when support is removed and terminates when chin touches or falls below bar