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The Story of “O” (as in Open Source). Phillip Long MIT. Thursday, May 13th, 2004. longpd@mit.edu. How many open source developers does it take to change a light bulb?. 17 to agree about the license 17 to argue about the brain deadedness of the light bulb architecture

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phillip long mit

The Story of “O”

(as in Open Source)

Phillip Long

MIT

Thursday, May 13th, 2004

longpd@mit.edu

slide3
17 to agree about the license
  • 17 to argue about the brain deadedness of the light bulb architecture
  • 17 to argue about a new model that encompasses all models of illumination & makes it simple to candles, campfires, pilot lights and skylights with the same easy to extend mechanism
  • 17 to speculate about the secretive industrial conspiracy that insures that light bulbs will burn out frequently
  • 1 to finally change the light and 16 who decide that this solution is good enough for the time being
  • Peter Wayner, “Free for all; how linux and the free software movement undercut the high-tech titatns”, NY, Harper-Collins, 2000
slide4

The e-decade

e-commerce

e-publishing

e-business

e-Bay

The o-decade

open systems

open source

open standards

open archives

open access

open tools

slide5

Liberation Technology1

1John Unsworth - Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 30, 2004

Dean of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Meme -

"ideas should freely spread from one to another over the globe”

Thomas Jefferson

slide6

Liberation technology is not anti-business

Commerce across a continuum of non-exclusive commercial rights

slide7

The Cast

Open Content

Open Standards

Open Systems

Open Tools

Open Access

slide8

Open Content

http://ocw.mit.edu/

“OpenCourseWare looks counter-intuitive in a market-driven world. It goes against the grain of current material values. But it really is consistent with what I believe is the best about MIT. It is innovative. It expresses our belief in the way education can be advanced – by constantly widening access to information and by inspiring others to participate.”

– Charles M. Vest,

President of MIT

Sept. 2001

slide9

Why Is MIT Doing This?

  • Furthers MIT’s fundamental mission
  • Embraces faculty values
  • Teaching
    • Sharing best practices with the greater community
    • Contributing to their discipline
  • Counters the privatization of knowledge and champions the movement toward greater openness
slide10

701 Courses

Phase III

Steady State

Phase I

Pilot

Phase II

Expansion

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Courses

Publication

Evaluation

Outreach

  • 50 500 900 1250 1550 1800 1800
  • Design pub process
  • Implement technologystrategy
  • Develop IP strategy
  • Implement dept.liaison program
  • Develop evaluationstrategy
  • Conduct baselineevaluation
  • Partner with Universia(translation affiliate)
  • Inventory content and improve quality
  • Enhance site features and functions
  • Add video materials
  • Plot new content capture tactics
  • Implement reporting strategy
  • Conduct annual evaluations and focused studies
  • Facilitate other opencoursewares
  • Partner with translation/distribution affiliates
  • Build awareness
  • Foster learning communities
  • Each year:
  • Add new courses: ~100
  • Revise existing: ~ 275
  • Archive old: ~ 100
  • Conduct annual evaluations and studies
  • Collaborate with consortium members

Where We Are

slide11

Publishing 700 Courses

Open Content

  • Site Highlights
  • Syllabus
  • Course Calendar
  • Lecture Notes
  • Assignments
  • Exams
  • Problem/Solution Sets
  • Labs and Projects
  • Simulations
  • Tools and Tutorials
  • Video Lectures
slide12

Open Content

Access Data

Site Traffic Overview

slide13

Open Content

Traffic Volume by Geography

March2004

slide14

Open Content

Access Data

  • Self-learners are 52% of visitors
    • Average of over 6000 daily visits
    • Most likely from North America (60% of North American visitors)
  • Students are 31% of visitors
    • 3600 daily visits
  • Educators are 13% of the visitors
    • 1550 visits per day
    • 55% of educators teach at 4-year colleges or the equivalent
    • Almost 49% have less than 5 years teaching experience
  • Almost 70% of users have a bachelors degree or higher
slide15
Other OCWs are beginning to appear

Some using MIT materials, some using the format, some using the idea

Open Content

Emerging

“opencoursewares”

slide16

Open Content

Dual Mission:

  • Provide free, searchable, coherent access to all MIT course materials for educators, students, and individual learners around the world
  • Create an efficient, standards-based model that other educational institutions may use to publish their own course materials
slide17

Open Standards

Interoperability

Portability

Coordinated effort

end

dimensions of interoperability

Open Standards

Dimensions of Interoperability

UI/Application Frameworks

Service Definitions

Data Definitions

Technology Choices

goals of interoperability
Goals of Interoperability
  • Data Exchange/Synchronization
  • Enterprise Integration
  • Application Portability
  • Tool/UI Integration
  • Language Integration
  • Inter-Enterprise Resource Sharing
  • Etc…
slide20

Open Standards

Open Knowledge Initiative

"an open and extensible architecture that specifies how the components of an educational software environmentcommunicate with each other and with other enterprise systems."

http://sourceforge.net/projects/okiproject

o k i is

Open Standards

O.K.I. is:
  • Service based architecture specifications
  • Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs)
  • Open source implementations
  • Open source exemplar applications
  • Educational Development Community
  • Funded by Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, CMI, MIT
o k i solution

Open Standards

O.K.I. Solution
  • Focus on Service Based architecture specifications (data/metadata specifications are “doing fine”)
  • Identify software infrastructure services critical to eLearning applications
  • Define interfaces to them. Don’t define how to implement them!
  • Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs)
osids

Open Standards

OSIDs…
  • Provide Architectural Model for software interoperability
  • Allow for easy mobility of application tools among enterprise infrastructures
  • Provide software developers with common, yet flexible, specifications for collaboration
  • Define boundaries between “user facing” applications and critical services (“MiddleWare”)
  • Help to “Future Proof” against changing technologies
  • Enable “marketplace” of software components
  • Are about Architecture, NOT Technology
service based architecture

Example

Open Standards

Service Based Architecture

…org.okip.service.shared.api.Thing things = myFactory.getSomething(); if (null != thingss) { for (int i = 0; things.length != i; i++) { out.println(things[i]); System.err.println(types[i]); } } …

Application

OSID

public class Factory

implements

org.okip.service.Example.api.Factory {

private static final blah blah bhal

private static final yada yada yada

} …

Service

e.g.

authentication

Implementation

Infrastructure

slide26

Open Standards

Boundaries

Opportunity: the OKI license encourages derivative works

slide27

Code what counts

Borrow or buy the rest

Who will provide the services?

slide28

Open Systems

Hiroyuki Sakai

Iron Chef French – Fusion Cuisine

sakai project core universities umich iu stanford mit

Open Systems

Sakai Project Core Universities: UMich, IU, Stanford, MIT

http://www.sakaiproject.org

  • Commitments
    • 5+ developers/architects, etc. under project leadership – no local responsibility for 2 years
    • Public commitment to implement Sakai
    • Open/Open licensing
  • Project
    • $4.4M in institutional staff (27 FTE)
    • $2.4M Mellon Foundation
    • Additional investment through partners (SEPP)
sakai project deliverables

Open Systems

Sakai Project Deliverables

Tool Portability Profile

  • Tool Portability Profile
    • Specifications for writing portable software
  • Pooled intellectual property…best of
    • JSR-168 portal
    • Course management system
      • Quizzing and assessment tools, etc
    • Research collaboration system
    • Workflow engine
    • …modular & pre-integrated
  • Synchronized adoptions at Michigan, Indiana, MIT, Stanford with open-open licensing
slide31

Open Systems

July 04

May 05

Dec 05

Jan 04

Sakai Core Project

Activity:

Maintenance &

Transition from a

project to

a community

Michigan

• CHEF Framework

• CourseTools

• WorkTools

Indiana

• Navigo Assessment

• Eden Workflow

• OneStart

• Oncourse

MIT

• Stellar

Stanford

• CourseWork

• Assessment

OKI

• OSIDs

uPortal

SAKAI 1.0 Release

• Tool Portability Profile

• Framework

• Services-based Portal

• Refined OSIDs

& implementations

SAKAI Tools

• Complete CMS

• Assessment

SAKAI 2.0 Release

• Tool Portability Profile

• Framework

• Services-based Portal

SAKAI Tools

• Complete CMS

• Assessment

• Workflow

• Research Tools

• Authoring Tools

"Best of"

Refactoring

Activity: Ongoing implementation work at local institution…

Primary SAKAI Activity

Architecting for JSR-168 Portlets,

Refactoring “best of” features for tools

Conforming tools to Tool Portability Profile

Primary SAKAI Activity

Refining SAKAI Framework,

Tuning and conforming additional tools

Intensive community building/training

service abstractions for interoperability

Open Systems

Service Abstractions for Interoperability

Application Client

Servers

Applications

Network Service A1

App. 1

Network Service A2

App. 2

Network Service B

service abstractions for interoperability1

Open Systems

Service Abstractions for Interoperability

Application Client

Servers

OSID

Applications

Network Service A1

App. 1

Network Service A2

App. 2

Network Service B

service abstractions for interoperability2

Open Systems

Service Abstractions for Interoperability

Application Client

Servers

OSID

Implementations

Applications

Protocol A

Network Service A1

Imp. A – Protocol Connector (plus Local Business Logic)

App. 1

Imp. B – Protocol Connector

Network Service A2

App. 2

Protocol B

Network Service B

service abstractions for interoperability3

Open Systems

Service Abstractions for Interoperability

Application Client

Servers

OSID

Implementations

Applications

Protocol A

Network Service A1

Imp. A – Protocol Connector (plus Local Business Logic)

App. 1

Imp. B – Protocol Connector

Network Service A2

App. 2

Imp. C - Local Connector

Protocol B

Network Service B

Local Service C

service abstractions for interoperability4

Open Systems

Service Abstractions for Interoperability

Application Client

Servers

OSID

Implementations

Applications

Protocol A

Network Service A1

Data

Imp. A – Protocol Connector (plus Local Business Logic)

App. 1

Data

Imp. B – Protocol Connector

Network Service A2

Data

App. 2

Data

Imp. C - Local Connector

Protocol B

Network Service B

Local Service C

sakai architecture

Open Systems

Sakai Architecture

JSR 168Portlet API

OSIDs

JSR169 Enabled Portal

App. 1

App. 2

App. 3

App. 4

sakai educational partners program
Facilitate adoption and development of tools for inter-institutional portability

What’s a SEP get?

Strategic briefings

Project Roadmap input

Early Access

Tool Portability Profile (TPP)

Software/Tools

Developer training

Community

Technical liaison

Implementation support

SEP Costs

Large institutions:

$30K ($10k/year for 3 years)

Small institutions(<3000 students)

$15k ($5k/year for 3 years)

Open Systems

Sakai Educational Partners Program

http://www.sakaiproject.org/partners.html

slide39

Open Systems

SEPP 1st Conference

http://www.sakaiproject.org/conference/agenda.html

slide40

Open Systems

http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content2/20040503155445

slide41

Open Systems

JISC Technical Framework

Sakai Technical Framework

lionshare

Open Systems

LionShare

http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main

  • Emerging from Napster + Kazaa + Gnutella

….. peer-to-peer with authentication

segue harmoni middlebury college

Open Systems

Segue & Harmoni - Middlebury College
  • Segue - PHP based CMS
    • http://sourceforge.net/projects/segue/
    • http://segue.middlebury.edu/index.php?&action=site&site=mit-test
  • Harmoni - next gen Segue
    • http://harmoni.sourceforge.net/
harmoni architecture
Harmoni Architecture

http://sourceforge.net/projects/harmoni

harmoni basics
Harmoni Basics
  • Development Status: 1 - Planning, 2 - Pre-Alpha, 4 - Beta
  • Environment: Web Environment
  • Intended Audience: Developers, Education, System Administrators
  • License: GNU General Public License (GPL)
  • Natural Language: English
  • Operating System: MacOS X, Windows, POSIX
  • Programming Language: Java, Perl, PHP
  • Topic: Front-Ends, CGI Tools/Libraries, Site Management, Security, Software Development
slide46

Open Tools

  • Tufts Visual Understanding Environment (VUE)
slide47

I

D

C

I

D

C

i

M

a

c

B

M

Many Repositories…

Remote

Institutional

Local

I

many repository related protocols

I

D

C

I

D

C

i

M

a

c

B

M

Many Repository Related Protocols…

Remote

SOAP

SRW

Institutional

Local

DRI

Z39.50

HTML

I

File System

many data specs standards

I

D

C

I

D

C

i

M

a

c

B

M

Many Data Specs/Standards…

DC

Remote

Mark

METS

SOAP

SRW

Institutional

IMS CP

LOM

Local

DRI

Z39.50

HTML

I

SCORM

File System

slide57

Reload

Chandler

Connexions

TWicki

open access dspace
Open Access - DSpace

http://www.dspace.org

fedora

Open Access

Fedora

http://www.fedora.info

  • Cornell/Univ.of Virgina open source digital repository project
  • Repository exposed via web service APIs & OKI OSIDs
  • Associate services with objects
  • Provides version control
ed tech architecture should
Ed Tech Architecture Should…
  • Make it easy for software developers to utilize enterprise infrastructure, otherwise they won’t.
  • Make it possible for institutions to share and collaborate on educational software
  • Provide ability for integration requirement to be more clearly specified in RFPs
  • Mitigate technology change
  • Support both Web and Client based applications
  • Driven by sustainability concerns NOT research (Pioneers not Trailblazers)
continuum of open
Continuum of Open
  • A growing ecology where open standards builds markets
    • Allowing open, community or proprietary source to add value
    • Business opportunities are expanding, shifting to the services not just the products
  • Be sanguine about what open standards means to you
    • The point is to get
      • interoperability,
      • portability, and
      • persistence
where are these ideas tested
Where are these ideas tested?

@ MIT last year

Alt-i-lab 2004, in the Bay Area, July

Watch IMS website http://www.imsproject.org

what does higher ed care about
What does higher ed care about?
  • Choice
  • Flexibility
  • Sustainability
  • Scholarship as a methodology
    • The largest open source project has the Human Genome Project
  • Enabling investments - getting the web and the desktop to work together
slide69

Open Content

Open Standards

Open Systems

Open Tools

Open Access

Reflect the application of scholarship to the problem of learning systems - that’s what higher ed does well

If higher ed innovates… where’s the opportunity?

It’s hard for individual institutions to support, maintain, or incrementally advance products and services well; (consortia?)

HE needs interoperable content;

HE needs partners not vendors

slide70

Thank you.

longpd@mit.edu

(Questions - Your Turn)

some open source links
Some Open Source Links
  • MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu
  • CETIS http://www.cetis.ac.uk/
  • Creative Commons http://creativecommons.org
  • eduplone (Plone is an enterprise CMS based on Zope/CMF) http://sourceforge.net/projects/eduplone/ and http://eduplone.net/
  • IMS Global Learning Consortium http://imsglobal.org
  • Open Knowledge Initiative http://sourceforge.net/projects/oki
  • Opensource CMS http://www.opensourcecms.com/
  • The Sakai Project http://www.sakaiproject.org
  • Segue - Middlebury College - http://
  • uPortal http://www.uportal.org
  • DSpace Federation http://www.dspace.org
  • The Fedora Project http://www.fedora.info
  • Connexions http://cnx.rice.edu
  • LionShare http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main