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HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY. Dr. Ghulam Hussain Baloch Associate Professor of Medicine Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro. Definition.

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HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY


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hepatic encephalopathy

HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

Dr. Ghulam Hussain Baloch

Associate Professor of Medicine

Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro

definition
Definition
  • It is a state of disordered CNS function, resulting from failure of liver to detoxify toxic agents because of hepatic insufficiency and porto-systemic shunt.
toxic agents
Toxic Agents
  • Ammonia NH 3
  • Mercaptin
  • Free Fatty Acids
pathogenesis
Pathogenesis

Ammonia formed by protein breakdown in GIT

Liver  Converts NH3 into urea  Excreted by kidney

pathogenesis1
Pathogenesis

Ammonia formed by protein breakdown in GIT

Liver  liver dysfunction (abnormal)  NH3  Passes BBB  Hepatic encephalopathy.

precipitating agents
Precipitating Agents

(A) Increase Nitrogen Load

(a) Constipation.

(b) Gastro intestinal bleeding.

(c) Excess dietary intake of protein & fatty acids.

(d) Azotemia.

precipitating agents1
Precipitating Agents

(B) Infections & Trauma (Surgery).

(C) Electrolyte & Metabolic imbalance

  • Hypokalemia.
  • Alkalosis.
  • Hypoxia.
  • Hyponatremic.
precipitating agents2
Precipitating Agents

(D) Drugs

  • Diuretics, Narcotics, Tranquilizers, Sedatives.
clinical features
Clinical Features

Symptoms

  • Sleep disturbances.
  • Personality Changes.
  • Confusion.
  • Slurred Speech.
  • Deterioration.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Coma.
  • Fever, Nausea, Vomiting and Techypnea are also common.
clinical features1
Clinical Features

Signs

  • Fetar Hepaticus.
  • Flapping Tremors or Asteritxis.
  • Coma.
clinical staging
Clinical Staging

Stage-I

  • Euphoria or Depression
  • Mild Confusion
  • Slurred Speech
  • Disordered Sleep
clinical staging1
Clinical Staging

Stage-II

  • Moderate Confusion.
  • Lethargy
clinical staging2
Clinical Staging

Stage-III

  • Marked Confusion.
  • Incoherent Speech.
  • Sleeping but Arrousable.

Stage-IV

  • Coma.
investigation
Investigation

(1) Liver function test.

(2) Serum Electrolytes.

(3) EEG.

  • Arterial Blood Ammonia.
  • Blood gases.
management
Management

General Measures

(1) Hospitalize the patient.

(2) Identify and remove the precipitating factors.

(3) Stop or reduce the Diuretic Therapy.

(4) Correct any electrolyte imbalance.

(5) Reduce the ammonia (NH3) Load.

  • Treat Constipation by Laxatives
management1
Management

Drug

  • Lactulose

Mechanism of Action

  • It produces osmosis of water- Diarrhea.
  • It converts NH3- NH4 that can be excreted.
treat the git other infections
Treat the GIT & other Infections

GIT- Infection

  • Supers the normal flora of GIT with
  • Metronidazole
  • Vacomycin.

Other Infection

  • Third generation ephalosporin
variceal bleeding
Variceal Bleeding

The collaterals at oesophagogastric junction due to porto-systemic shunt one known as oesophageal varices.

The varices can rupture in 1/3 cases and can lead to death in 50% cases.

clinical feature
Clinical Feature
  • Melena (black colour stools)
  • Hematemis
  • Hypovolumic shock
management2
Management

Treatment during active-bleeding.

(1) Monitor the vitals

(2) Pass I/V line and give blood transfusion.(if not available give plasma expander).

(3) FFP (Fresh Frozen Plasma) can be given in case of thrombocytopenia.

(4) I/V H2 receptor blocker or proton pump inhibitors (Omeperazole) can be given to reduce gastric irritation.

vasoconstriction agents
Vasoconstriction Agents

(1) Vasopression

  • Side-effect - angina or MI.

(2) Terlepression

  • More safe as compared to vasopression.

(3) Octreotide

  • Also decreases secretion in GIT.
urgent endoscopy and sclerotherapy
Urgent Endoscopy and Sclerotherapy
  • After stoppage of bleeding with the help of vasoconstricting agent and when patient becomes hemodynamically in stable condition, then injection sclerotherapy can be given.
urgent endoscopy and sclerotherapy1
Urgent Endoscopy and Sclerotherapy
  • Sclerosing agent

Ethanolamine tetradecyl sulfate.

OR

Banding - can be performed by putting rings at basis of varices.

other measures
Other Measures

(1) Balloon Temponade

The sangstaken- black more tube is passed into the stomach and the balloon is inflated and pulled back, which exerts pressure on lower oesophages and fundus to stop the bleeding.

other measures1
Other Measures

(2) Le-Vein Shunt

A shunt is passed sub-cutaneously in between the jugular vein and portal vein.

other measures2
Other Measures

(3) TIPS (Transjular Intrahepatic Porto-caval Shunt)

  • In this procedure a catheter is passed from jugular vein to portal vein under the u/s guidance.
prophylais agaist re bleeding
Prophylais Agaist Re-Bleeding

Once the initial episode of bleeding is controlled, the risk of rebleeding is 50-80% without further therapy.

(1) Long term injection sclerotherapy

usually 4-6 treatment one required to prevent rebleeding, but every year endoscopy should be done to see the condition of varices.

prophylais agaist re bleeding1
Prophylais Agaist Re-Bleeding

(2) B- Blockers (Non selective beta-blocker of propranolol)

It dilates the protal veins so decrease the portal vein pressure. In case of asthmatic patient glyceryl dinitrite can be used.