TIBET Presented By: Konstantin Altukhov, Mathew Ensign, Heather Johnson, Lesley Kriebel, Su Ting Li, Dan Guidoux, Brandon Navas, and Peter Smith
Climate • Variable climate • Mostly cold and dry • Ideal months for travel are from May to October.
Biogeography • Wildlife varies greatly by region and climate zone. • 13,000 plants and 1200 animal species have been identified.
Biogeography continued • 141 animals and 40 plants native to Tibet have been placed on the endangered species watch list and are protected by the government.
References http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21577341-worlds-third-largest-area-ice-about-undergo-systematic http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/594898/Tibet/71415/Plant-and-animal-life http://wildtibet.org/tibet-wildlife-directory.htm http://www.tibettravel.org/tibet-travel-guide/Tibetan-plants.html http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/156630/ http://www.chinahighlights.com/tibet/weather.htm http://images.nationalgeographic.com/wpf/media-live/photos/000/004/cache/clouded-leopard_499_600x450.jpg http://ibc.lynxeds.com/files/imagecache/photo_940/pictures/Black_necked_Crane.jpg
Landscape • Plateau surrounded by Mountains to the south. • Home to many lakes. • Tibet is often called the “roof of the world” • Georges carved out by rivers • Alpine Tundra • The landscape attracts many tourists
Hydro Tibet can be split into two main regions: the lake region and the river region. The lake region is home to cultures which rely on agriculture to sustain their way of life, while the river region is inhabited by nomadic societies. Some of the rivers that run through Tibet include the Mekong, Yellow, and Indus rivers.
References: http://apsorescuecolorado.wordpress.com/category/tibetan-dogs/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibet
Economy • Before 1951 • Subsistence agricultural and pastoral production • Barley, wheat, potato • Non-agricultural production • Handicraft • Trade • Import • Export Source: http://www.shangri-la-river-expeditions.com/wchinageo/wchinageo.html
After 1951 • Social reform – feudal system abolished • Land and animals distributed • Economic reform • Increased production • Government funding • 96% funded by the central government • Education, health care, welfare, • Transportation • Railway – train from Xining to Lhasa Source: http://www.tibettravelplanner.com/train.htm
Major industries • Agriculture/animal husbandry • Services • Handicrafts • Tourism • 2006 – 2.5 million • 2012 – 10 million Source: http://en.tibetol.cn/01/04/02/200903/t289509.htm
Growth • 12% GDP annual growth rate • 12th Five-year Plan (2011-15) • More than 1 billion yuan • Railway expansion • Development projects Source: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/30/content_11098770_2.htm
Sources • Goldscheider, Calvin. “Economic Patterns of the Tibet Autonomous Region: The Past and Present.” Case Western Reserve University. N.d. Web. 19 July 2014. <http://www.case.edu/affil/tibet/moreTibetInfo/documents/TibetEconomy2.pdf> • BBC News. “Tibet Profile.” BBC News Asia. 13 August 2013. Web. 20 July 2014 <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16689779> • Jiang, Yuxia. “Focus On Tibet.” News.cn. 30 March 2009. Web. 21 July 2014. <http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/30/content_11098770_2.htm> • Tibettravelplanner.com. N.d. Web. 18 July 2014. <http://www.tibettravelplanner.com/train.htm> Picture on 1st slide <http://www.shangri-la-river-expeditions.com/wchinageo/wchinageo.html> Picture on 3rd slide <http://en.tibetol.cn/01/04/02/200903/t289509.htm>
Cultural Geography Cultures are often shaped by neighboring countries. The inaccessibility and remoteness of Tibet worked to help preserve some of the regional practices. Some of these differences include cuisine, clothing, and religion.
Cuisine Tibet largely relies on pastoralism, or raising their yaks; however, they are able to grow barley and in lower elevations rice, oranges, bananas, and lemon. Tsampa - the staple food. Balep, Sha Phaley, and Thukpa are other common foods. Also, Yak products.
Clothing/Attire Traditional clothing is usually conservative. Western clothing has become more common. Their robes are called chubas. Around their waste is a belt or girdle which creates a large pocket called an ampa. This is used to store a number of items. Hats often vary depending on the district you come from.
References: "Administrative Division"Tibet Facts & Figures 2007. China Internet Information Center. Buckley, Micheal. Major Rivers Sourced in Tibet. <http://www.meltedownintibet.com> Crowe, D. M. (2013). The “Tibet question”: Tibetan, Chinese and Western perspectives. Nationalities Papers, 41(6), 1100-1135. doi:10.1080/00905992.2013.801946 Fleming, P. (1955). Tibetan Marches. André Migot. Translated from the French. p. 103. E. P. Dutton & Co. Inc. New York Hussain, D., & Bhushan, B. (2011). Cultural factors promoting coping among Tibetan refugees: a qualitative investigation. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14(6), 575-587. doi:10.1080/13674676.2010.497131 Migot, André (1955). Tibetan Marches. Translated by Peter Fleming. E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., U.S.A., pp. 84-86.
Cultural DiversityReligious Uniqueness Tibetan Buddhism is a combination of Mahayana Buddhism, Tantric Buddhism, Bön and Shamanism. Navas
Bön and Shamanism: • Comprised of belief that nature was made and filled with good and bad spirits • Shaman are people who may travel into a spirit realm normally in an entranced state • Modern followers now see their deities as either enlightened or still of this world due to Buddhist influence • The Wrathful Deities are meditated upon to understand reality and its harshness as a means of achieving enlightenment Navas
MahayanaBuddhism: • The pursuit of self liberation and the removal of all defilements. • Helping other sentient beings to achieve Nirvana • In Tibet, vegetarianism is not required due to low resource diversity Tantric Buddhism: • A form or reaching enlightenment through the use of earthly materials • A tool for accessing immediate enlightenment • May take years to fully master Navas
Sources Cited: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm http://www.religionfacts.com/a-z-religion-index/bon.htm http://bonchildren.tonkoblako-9.net/en/jewel2/01.tan http://buddhism.about.com/od/vajrayanabuddhism/a/tantra101.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Yantra http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/tibet-txt.htm http://buddhistartnews.wordpress.com/category/united-states/page/41/ Navas
Often times, protests led by Bhuddist monks against China’s rule in Tibet turn violent. Protesters often clash with police throughout Western China, Nepal, and India. Tibetans and their supporters have turned to the international community for help. And they have made petitions for China to restart talks with the Dalai Lama. Altukhov
Some Chinese officials have opened some fake accounts on Twitter to spread lies about the Tibetan protester and Tibetan people. The tweets – written in English and Chinese – attack political leaders' meetings with the Dalai Lama, advertise rail links between China's east coast and Lhasa, the Tibetan capital, and link to videos of Tibetans dancing in "exotic dress" on state-run television. Altukhov
Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama returned to Dharamsala from Delhi after teaching at Ladakh his 33rd Kalachakra teachings. Around 200,000 followers from 73 countries attended the Kalachakra held from July 3 to 14, 2014. During the course of the teachings, the Dalai Lama called for religious and social harmony among different communities in Ladakh, and spoke to mediapersons at Gaggal Airport. The Dalai Lama expressed concern over the ongoing violence in various parts of the world. Altukhov
Sources Cited: http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/china-must-allow-independent-investigation-tibetan-protest-clashes-2012-01-24 http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/22/free-tibet-fake-twitter-accounts-china-propagandists http://dalailama.com/gallery#ad-image-1 http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/tweets-07212014163726.html Altukhov
Current Events • There was a “no objection letter” to have the cremation in Nepal • Retracts Permission for a cremation for a “prominent spiritual figure in Tibetan Buddhism.” Retracted because of directives from the Nepal’s Ministry of Home Affairs and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Kathmandu. • The name of the monk is Shamar Rinpoche, 62 died of a heart attack – in a New York Times article. Nepal Retracts Permission For Cremation Peter Smith
Activist Talks about House Arrest • Tsering Woeser – A writer who tends to criticizes policies of the Communist Party of China. She was placed under house arrest after receiving a dinner invitation at the U.S. Embassy. • At the time of the house arrest, she was going to attend an award ceremony in the United States. • The U.S. Embassy in Nepal was going to look into the house arrest that prevented Tsering Woeser from attending the diner. Tsering Woeser in Inner Mongolia Pictured via Associated Press Peter Smith
Protest Singer under House Arrest • A popular Tibetan singer named Gebe arrested in the Sichuan Province after performing a concert. Has been seen since 2012. • One of 11 musicians that have been in state custody. • Gebe writes & promotes songs that “asserts Tibetan national and cultural identity” along with challenging the Chinese (Communist) Rule in Tibet. Photo of GeBe No date giving for the above photo. http://freetibet.org/about/political-prisoners-gaybay Peter Smith
Citations • SHARMA, BHADRA. "Nepal Retracts Permission for Tibet Monk’s Cremation.“ The New York Times. The New York Times, 13 July 2014. Web. 20 July 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/14/world/asia/nepal-retracts-permission-for-a-t ibetan-lamas-cremation.html>. • Wong, Edward. "Tibetan Activist on Her Latest House Arrest." Sinosphere Tibetan Activist on Her Latest House Arrest Comments. The New York Times, 15 July 2014. Web. 20 July 2014. <http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/07/15/tibetan-activist-on-her- latest-house-arrest/>. • Qin, Amy. "Tibetan Protest Singer Is Said to Be Under Arrest." Sinosphere Tibetan Protest Singer Is Said to Be Under Arrest Comments. The New York Times, 28 May 2014. Web. 20 July 2014. <http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/28/tibetan-protest- singer-is-said-to-be-under-arrest/>. • First Slide Sources: • http://www.diamondway-buddhism.org/karmapa-in-germany-shamar-rinpoche/ • http://jubilaeum.diamondwaybuddhism.org/?page_id=222 Peter Smith