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The Water Cycle. The Water Cycle. The Water Cycle. The Water Cycle. DB2. The Water Cycle. Evaporation: liquid to gas salt/impurities in water are left behind Condensation: gas to liquid fresh water

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the water cycle1
The Water Cycle
  • The Water Cycle
the water cycle3
The Water Cycle
  • Evaporation: liquid to gas
  • salt/impurities in water are left behind
  • Condensation: gas to liquid
  • fresh water
  • clouds
  • Precipitation: release of fresh water
the water cycle4
The Water Cycle
  • Animation video youtube
the water cycle5
The Water Cycle
  • Saltwater 97%
  • Freshwater 3%
  • 2/3 or 2% over oceans
  • 1/3 0r 1% over land
  • Glaciers 85%
  • Runoff 1%
  • Groundwater 14%
runoff
Runoff
  • Runoff Rivers, streams, lakes, etc.
  • Ancient civilizations
  • Niles river, Egypt
  • Mesopotamia, Iraq
runoff1
Runoff
  • What are the different ways that sediments are transported by Runoff?
runoff2
Runoff
  • Modes of Sediment Erosion
  • Solution Dissolved Sediments salts
  • Suspension floating clay, silt
  • Bed load dragged and rolled pebble, gravel
  • Saltation suspended and bed load sand
runoff3
Runoff
  • What factors can affect the carrying capacity of runoff?
runoff4
Runoff
  • Carrying Capacity Factors
  • Speed/Energy
  • Slope Head water vs. Base level
  • Channel shape Straight vs. Curved
  • Channel bed surface Smooth vs. Rough
  • Volume of water
runoff5
Runoff
  • Why do rivers slow down?
  • Run out of energy
  • Reach flat areas base level, no gravity pull
  • Hit a barrier rocks, dam
  • Enter a body of water lake, ocean
runoff deposition
Runoff Deposition
  • What happens to their sediment load when rivers slow down?
  • Release sediments
  • Sorted deposits
  • Larger grains gravel, pebble, and sand
  • Smaller grains last silt and clay
runoff deposition1
Runoff Deposition
  • Sorted sediment deposition
runoff deposition2
Runoff Deposition
  • Sediments released by rivers at their Base level create depositional formations that resemble triangles.
  • Depending on the location of base level
  • Deltas
  • Alluvial Fans
delta
River's Base level ends in a body of water.

Ex. Mississippi Gulf of Mexico

Ex. Nile River Mediterranean Sea

Delta
review1
Review
  • What are the 4 modes of sediment erosion?

Solution, Suspension, Bed load, & Saltation

  • How does a sediment’s grain size affect its mode of erosion?
  • finer grain ~ suspended
  • Coarser grain ~ saltation/bed load
  • Compare and contrast a river’s head water and base level, in terms of location and channel slope.
  • Head waters where runoff originates steep slope
  • Base level where runoff terminates gentle slope
review2
Review
  • Which of the two types of the river channels allow faster currents? Straight OR Meandering/curved
  • How would the river bottom affect the water current?
  • Rough/irregular ~ slower current
  • Smooth/less friction ~ faster current
  • What is the primary force behind why rivers flow?
  • Gravity
  • What can we infer from the flow direction of a river?
  • Slope of the land.
review3
Review
  • What happens when a river reaches its base level?
  • It slows down and releases its sediments.
  • In what order of grain size are sediments released ?
  • Coarse to fine grain
  • Gravel to clay
  • Sorted deposits
  • What 2 depositional features may form at the rivers’ base levels?

Delta ( water)

Alluvial Fan ( land )

runoff6
Runoff
  • Divides and Drainage Basins (Watersheds)
rivers streams
Rivers & Streams
  • Head waters where runoff originates steep slope
  • Base level where runoff terminates gentle slope
runoff7
Runoff
  • Watershed and Drainage basin
glaciers
Glaciers
  • Perito Moreno Glacier in Argentina
groundwater
Groundwater
  • Groundwater
do now questions
Do Now Questions
  • How is freshwater replenished on Earth?
  • What % of earth’s total water at any time is freshwater?
  • What is the most available source of fresh water?
groundwater1
Groundwater
  • 1/11/12
  • Objectives
  • Where and how does groundwater form?
  • Exploring topics
  • How is groundwater affected by human activity?
  • Homework
  • SGCM: 10.1 Groundwater
groundwater2
Groundwater
  • Groundwater 14% of freshwater
  • The most available source of freshwater.
  • Aquifer
  • Soil or rock that has the potential to contain groundwater.
groundwater4
Groundwater
  • Porosity ~ % sediment pore space
  • higher porosity=more water
  • Permeability ~ capability to permit water movement

higher permeability= faster flow

  • Aquifer ~ soil/rock
  • high Porosity & Permeability
  • * Sandstone and Limestone
groundwater5
Groundwater
  • Aquifer: Porous & Permeable
  • Precipitation
  • surface

Infiltration

  • Zone of Aeration
  • air & water soil moisture
  • water table
  • Zone of Saturation
  • 100% water
  • Groundwater

Impermeable layer Clay/Shale

exploring gw issues
Exploring GW Issues
  • Fresh Groundwater ~ Renewable Resource
  • Excess usage vs. Replenishing
  • Depletion ~ reduction in supply
  • Potentially Non-renewable Resource

Water Cycle

exploring gw issues1
Exploring GW Issues
  • U.S. Freshwater aquifers
  • High Plains Aquifer
  • Glacial ice-melt 30,000 yrs. ago
  • Excess usage
  • Depletion by 1/4
  • Dried up wells!
exploring gw issues2
Exploring GW Issues
  • Depletion near saltwater seas/oceans
  • Saltwater Intrusion

Lower density

Higher density

exploring gw issues3
Exploring GW Issues
  • Saltwater Intrusion
exploring gw issues4
Exploring GW Issues
  • Intrusion of saltwater/harmful substances
  • Pollution
  • Groundwater no longer a resource.
  • Surface and underground sources of pollution
exploring gw issues5
Exploring GW Issues
  • Excessive GW usage
  • Loss of water pressure
  • Soil compaction
  • Land subsidence
  • Markers 1925, 1955, 1977
review4
Review
  • What is an Aquifer?
  • Soil/rock: High Porosity and Permeability
  • Has the potential to contain groundwater.
  • Name 2 rocks that can be good aquifers.
  • Sandstone and Limestone
  • Compare and contrast the two zones of an aquifer.
  • Zone of Aeration ~ water and air in pores
  • Zone of Saturation ~ water in pores ~ Groundwater
review5
Review
  • How is fresh groundwater replenished in nature?
  • Precipitation: rain, melting snow
  • What happens to the thickness of groundwater as more water infiltrates into an aquifer?
  • Thickness increases.
  • What will happen to the water table level as more water seeps into an aquifer?
  • It will rise/gets closer to the surface
review6
Review
  • Shale and clay act as impermeable layers at the base of aquifers. What other rock type(s) can create the same condition? Explain why.
  • Igneous
  • Metamorphic
  • Low-No porosity and permeability
review7
Review
  • Describe underlying conditions that can cause saltwater intrusion in a freshwater well.
  • Near saltwater sea/ocean
  • Excessive withdrawal than natural replenishing of GW.
  • Name possible effects of groundwater depletion in New Jersey?
  • Wells dry up!
  • Land subsidence
  • Saltwater Intrusion
review8
Review
  • Homework: SGCM: 10.1 Groundwater
groundwater8
Groundwater

Hydrothermal Energy

Magma and Groundwater

Geysers yellowstone NP

Geysers and hotsprings

Iceland

groundwater weathering erosion
Groundwater Weathering & Erosion
  • Cave formation
  • Carbonic acid in groundwater dissolves Limestone.
slide56

calcite

  • Stalactite top
  • Stalagmite bottom
  • Dripstone column
groundwater10
Groundwater
  • Sinkholes ~ Collapsed roof of caves.
groundwater11
Groundwater
  • Karst Topography
  • Limestone rocks
  • Carbonic acid groundwater, rise and fall of water table
  • Caves
  • Sinkholes
review9
Review
  • Describe conditions for formation of karst topography.
  • Ls rocks
  • Carbonic acid groundwater
  • water table fluctuations
  • Describe physical features in a karst topography.
  • Caves with stalactites and stalagmites
  • Sinkholes
aquifer porosity lab
AQUIFER POROSITY Lab
  • Porosity and Permeability
  • Permeability of different grains