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Nutrition And Fitness
Why should we care about nutrition and fitness? Activity: On a sheet of paper, list the 4 foods you eat most often for meals. Next, list the 4 foods you eat most often for snacks. Last, list the beverage you drink most often. Where our Country is headed if we don't change...
What is the best way to reverse the trend? Activity: Get into groups of 4 and answer these two questions: Question 1. List 3 reasons you think the U.S. trend we just looked at is the way it is? Be specific? Question 2. Most Americans already know they are suppose to eat healthy and exercise…knowing that, list 2 ways we can change this trend that aren’t already being done. (Hint: Be Creative!)
Let’s start with nutrition…you need to know what to eat to properly fuel your body. Why is it important to practice good nutrition? Let’s define some key terms before we start…
Nutrition – The process by which the body takes in and uses food. • Calories – Or kilocalories, are units of energy that are measured to supply the body with fuel. • Nutrients – Substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself and to supply you with energy. What is the difference between hunger and appetite? Hunger – Is an inborn response, or a natural physical drive that protects you from starvation. -In an empty stomach, the walls contract -Nerve endings are stimulated when this happens -Signals are sent to the brain saying “eat something” Appetite – Is a desire, rather than a need, to eat. -Example would be responding to fresh baked doughnuts, even though you are not hungry.
Influences What influences the food choices we make? -Emotions -Family -Friends -Peers -Cultural and Ethnic Background -Convenience -Cost -Advertising
The goal of what we eat is to properly fuel your body. There are 6 Essential Nutrients your body needs to function. Can you name all 6?
-Main source of energy that fuels the body -Contains 4 calories per gram -Classified into 2 different types: Carbohydrates: Complex Carbohydrates: -Found in “unrefined” Foods -Also known as “starches” -Rich in Fiber, which maintains a healthy digestive system -Provide Long-Lasting Energy Simple Carbohydrates: -Found in Refined Foods -No nutritional value -Generally come from sugar -Provide immediate energy
Protein -Important component in every body cell -Builds and repairs body tissue -Building block of Bones, Muscles, Skin, hair, Nails, and Blood -4 calories per gram
Unsaturated Fats: -Good for heart health -Helps lower cholesterol -Found in Plant foods and Fish Fats Saturated Fats: -Unhealthy for you -Raise Cholesterol -Found in Animal meat, butter, cheese, potato chips -Allow you to absorb vitamins -Provide energy -Insulate important body systems -9 calories per gram
Vitamins -Compounds that regulate many vital body processes such as digestion, absorption, and metabolism -Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and pass into the blood stream during digestion. -Your body does not store them, need to replenish regularly. Examples: C, B1, B2, Niacin, B6, Folic Acid, B12 -Fat-Soluble vitamins are stored in your body and transported in fat. -Your body stores them in fatty tissue, the liver and kidneys. Examples: A, D, E, K
Minerals -Substances the body can not produce but are needed for many functions that keep the body growing and functioning. -They are vital to many processes in the body, such as forming healthy bones, teeth and maintaining a healthy blood flow. -Examples include: -Calcium -Iron -Magnesium -Phosphorous
Water -Vital to every body function -Carries Waste from cells -Maintains body temperature through sweat -Necessary to drink at least 8 glasses a day -Lubricates body joints
So how much of each nutrient do I need in a day? Carbs 50% of daily calories Protein 30% of daily calories Fats 20% of daily calories Water At least Eight 8oz glasses Balanced Diet provides all vitamins/minerals
What happens if you eat too many calories a day? What if you eat too few?
Where does exercise come in? What if I live a sedentary lifestyle? (video games, TV, etc.) What if I am an athlete? What if no matter how much I eat, I don’t gain weight? True or False: Exercise and daily activity level plays a huge part in increasing or decreasing your daily calorie needs
Exercise and its effect on your heart… Your Heart is muscle.True or False?Your Heart is the best indicator of your fitness.True or False?So how do we test our fitness? Resting Pulse Rate.
Activity:Find your Carotid (neck) or Radial (Wrist) pulse. Let your body relax for a minute. Begin counting on my command (1 minute) and be accurate.What did you get?What does that mean? Age BPM 0 to 1 100 – 160 1-10 70 to 120 11 – 17 60 to 100 Adults 60 to 100 Athletes 40 to 60 Healthy Range
Lets Figure out your daily calorie needs… Required Data: -Weight in pounds -Height in inches -Age -Gender
Example with Mr. Cop… Weight: 170 lbs Height: 72 inches (6 feet 0 inches) Age: 31 Gender: Male
Formula to Calculate Basal Metabolic Rate, or BMR Women: BMR = 655 + ( 4.35 x weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 x height in inches ) – ( 4.7 x age in years ) Men: BMR = 66 + ( 6.23 x weight in pounds ) + ( 12.7 x height in inches ) - ( 6.8 x age in year ) Example with Mr. Cop 66 + (6.23 X 170) + (12.7 X 72) – (6.8 X 31) 66 + 1059 + 914 – 211 2039 – 211 = 1,828 Mr. Cop’s BMR Not finished yet…
Use the Harrison Benedict Formula to Calculate Daily Caloric Needs based on Activity Level If you are sedentary (little or no exercise) : BMR x 1.2 If you are lightly active (light exercise/sports 1-3 days/week) : BMR x 1.375 If you are moderately active (moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week) : BMR x 1.55 If you are very active (hard exercise/sports 6-7 days a week) : BMR x 1.725 If you are extra active (very hard exercise/sports and physical job or 2x training) : BMR x 1.9 1,828 X 1.55 = 2,833 Calories a day Mr. Cop needs to maintain weight…
What did you come up with? Do you think that is accurate? What is the link between exercise/activity and calories needed? What if you want to lose weight? How many calories are in a pound? 3,500 How many calories do you need to cut a day to lose a pound a week? 500 Are you eating the right amount of calories?
Calories… Do you know how many calories are in common foods you eat everyday? If not, how would you be able to monitor your calories in order to lose weight? Let’s test your knowledge…
Activity: After I hand you an index card with a food on it, line up in order from the least amount of calories in the food to the most amount of calories in the food.