Mechanical disciplinary research
Download
1 / 34

Mechanical Disciplinary Research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on

Mechanical Disciplinary Research. Marissa Caldwell, Anya Godigamuwe, Valerie Miller, Yuka Narisako , Jimmy Weaver. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems (VRF). [James Weaver]. The Vapor Compression Cycle. Condenser Coil. Expansion Valve. Compressor. Evaporator Coil.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Mechanical Disciplinary Research' - dixie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Mechanical disciplinary research

Mechanical Disciplinary Research

Marissa Caldwell, Anya Godigamuwe, Valerie Miller,Yuka Narisako, Jimmy Weaver



The vapor compression cycle
The Vapor Compression Cycle

Condenser Coil

Expansion Valve

Compressor

Evaporator Coil


Variable refrigerant flow volume systems
Variable Refrigerant Flow/Volume Systems

  • A VRF System operates by sending refrigerant between an outdoor and indoor unit.

  • The outdoor unit houses the condenser and compressor.

  • The indoor unit houses the evaporator.

  • Refrigerant is varied to each indoor unit based on the desired load using electronic expansion valves or pulse modulating valves.

  • Heat Recovery is available through the reuse of energy from superheated refrigerant.

Figure 2: VRV System in a tall building. Provided by Daikin Industries, Ltd.

Goetzler, William. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems. ASHRAE Journal. April 2007.


Advantages vs disadvantages
Advantages Vs. Disadvantages

  • Advantages:

  • Lightweight and modular

  • Flexible Design

  • Minimal Ductwork

  • Individual Comfort Control

  • Energy Efficient – High Part Load Efficiency

  • Disadvantages:

  • Initial Costs

  • Refrigerant Piping Concerns

  • Cold Climate Issues

  • Market Acceptance

  • Many Require a Dedicated Outdoor Air System

Figure 3: Heat Recovery VRF System. Provided by ASHRAE Journal, April 2007.

Goetzler, William. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems. ASHRAE Journal. April 2007.


Potential project benefits
Potential Project Benefits

  • A multi-purpose building can benefit from space by space comfort control.

  • Minimal Ductwork can provide solutions to challenging space and coordination issues.

  • Energy performance from a VRF system can improve a building operational costs.

Figure 4: Temperature distribution in a building. Provided by Daikin Industries, Ltd.

Figure 5: VRV system with 100% Outside Air Unit. Provided by Daikin Industries, Ltd.

Goetzler, William. Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems. ASHRAE Journal. April 2007.


Thermal energy storage
Thermal Energy Storage

[Yuka Narisako]


Thermal energy storage definition
Thermal Energy Storage – Definition

  • Store unused energy when it is undesired and release it when it is necessary to reduce energy waste.

http://www.calmac.com/products/icebank.asp


Thermal energy storage types of systems
Thermal Energy Storage – Types of Systems

  • Time/Consumption based

    • Peak shaving

  • Heating

    • Hot water tanks in homes

    • Thermal mass

  • Cooling

    • Water pumped from dams

    • Water storage units

    • Ice storage units

  • http://www.calmac.com/products/icebank.asp


    Thermal energy storage real world example
    Thermal Energy Storage – Real World Example

    • Nissan Technical Center North America Inc.

      • Farmington Hills, MI

    • Duquesne University

      • Pittsburgh, PA

      • Add ice making chiller and ice storage unit

    http://www.energystorageexchange.org/


    Thermal energy storage possible use for project
    Thermal Energy Storage – Possible Use for Project

    • Reduce cooling load by installing small chiller and ice storage unit

      • Lower cost

      • Reduce size of mechanical room

      • Possibly provide cooling for future


    Energy recovery ventilator erv
    Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV)

    [Valerie Miller]


    Energy recovery ventilator definition
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Definition

    • Energy Recovery Ventilators (ERV’s) utilize conditioned waste air energy to precondition outdoor air, by the use of a heat exchanger.

    • Heating and cooling

    • All ERV’s transfer sensible heat (temperature); some types transfer latent heat (humidity)

    Space AirconditioningPLC

    Sustainable Sources


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

    • Plate to Plate

    • Runaround Coil

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems1
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

      • Enthalpy Wheel

      • Wheel spins between exhaust and outdoor air duct, transferring the heat from the hotter air to the cooler air

      • Sensible and Latent heat; transfers heat and moisture

      • Small cross-contamination

      • Ducts must be close

    • Plate to Plate

    • Runaround Coil

    Sacramental Municipal Utility District Energy Info. Library

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems2
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

    • Plate to Plate

      • Air streams pass through alternating plates

      • Air streams never come in contact; no cross-contamination

      • Ducts must be close

    • Runaround Coil

    Fantronix Online Ventilation Solutions

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems3
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    • Thermal Wheel

    • Plate to Plate

    • Runaround Coil

      • Coil’s containing a medium run through the exhaust system

      • No cross-contamination

      • Ducts can be any distance

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre


    Energy recovery ventilator types of systems4
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Types of Systems

    Fastlane: Ventilation Equipment Limited

    Live Building: Integrated Learning Centre

    Trane


    Energy recovery ventilator example
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Example

    • McAllister Building

      • (2) enthalpy wheel ERV’s

      • 73.7% and 71.4% effective

      • <0.04% cross-contamination

    OPP Commissioning Wikispaces


    Energy recovery ventilator example1
    [Energy Recovery Ventilator] – Example

    • Carnegie Mellon University's Intelligent Workplace

      • Enthalpy wheel

      • Reduced heating load by 77%

    • James W. Meacham’s Spring 2003 Senior Thesis

      • Grade School, Philadelphia, PA

      • Enthalpy Wheel cost summary showed a cost savings of ~$25,000 in the first year, a 4 day payback period

    • Installing an Enthalpy Wheel in new construction allows you to downsize equipment and save money up-front

      • Florida school saved $25,000 up-front by equipment downsizing

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5521845253/in/photostream/

    • Greenheck: Energy Recovery Application Manual:

    Proceedings of IMEC2006: 2006 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    An FPL Technical Primer: Energy Recovery Ventilation

    • Greenheck: Energy Recovery Application Manual:


    Earth coupled systems
    Earth-Coupled Systems

    [Anya Godigamuwe]


    Earth coupled systems definition
    Earth-Coupled Systems– Definition

    • Using the near constant temperature of the Earth to heat spaces in winter and to cool spaces in summer

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems types of systems
    Earth-Coupled Systems– Types of Systems

    Closed Loop

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems types of systems1
    Earth-Coupled Systems– Types of Systems

    Open toReinjection

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems types of systems2
    Earth-Coupled Systems– Types of Systems

    Standing

    Column

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Earth coupled systems real world example
    Earth-Coupled Systems– Real World Example

    • 7R Building at EEB Hub, Navy Yard, Philadelphia

    Source: KieranTimberlake


    Earth coupled systems real world example1
    Earth-Coupled Systems– Real World Example

    • 7R Building at EEB Hub, Navy Yard, Philadelphia

    Source: KieranTimberlake


    Earth coupled systems possible use for project
    Earth-Coupled Systems– Possible Use for Project

    Pros

    Cons

    • Could provide 80% heating/cooling needs

    • Short payoff period

    • Not suited for 24/7 cooling

    • Requires a large area of land

    Introduction to Geothermal Technologies / Egg & Howard


    Radiant floor heating
    Radiant Floor Heating

    Marissa Caldwell


    Radiant floor heating definition
    Radiant Floor Heating – Definition

    • Supplies heat to the floor from tubing or cables under the floor

    • Radiant Heat Transfer

    • Heats from floor up

    • Natural circulation through convection

    http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/radiant-heating


    Hydronic vs electric
    Hydronic vs. Electric

    • Hydronic

      • Uses pumps and valves to regulate flow based on design temps

      • Longer to heat up floor

      • Requires a boiler

    • Electric

      • Uses conduit to pass electricity at night to heat the thermal mass, and radiate heat during the day


    Radiant floor heating types of systems
    Radiant Floor Heating– Types of Systems

    • Wet Installation

      • Tubing is placed within the concrete slab

      • Allows for the use of energy storage in the thermal mass

    • Dry Installation

      • Plywood is placed on top of the tubing

      • It can be either sandwiched in or the tubing is stapled to the underside of the flooring

    http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/radiant-heating


    Radiant floor heating real world example
    Radiant Floor Heating – Real World Example

    • Herbert Jacobs House – Wisconsin

      • Wright 1st to use radiant floor heating in a US home

    • Hearst Tower – New York

      • Radiant floor heating was added in their three-story atrium to avoid heating unoccupied space

    • California Academy of Sciences – California

      • 35-foot-high museum space, reduced energy through heating by 10%

    http://www.calacademy.org/academy/building/sustainable_design/


    Radiant floor heating possible use for project
    Radiant Floor Heating – Possible Use for Project

    • This system is ideal for large spaces with high ceilings

    • Improved indoor air quality

    • Inexpensive if the building already has a boiler

    • Allows for open layouts

    Thermal Dynamics of Radiant Floor Heating – Darren Cent


    ad