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The War At Home. Chapter 11-3. Congress Gives Power to Wilson. WWI was not only fought on the battle fields but on the home front as well Businesses went from producing consumer goods to producing the tools of war The effort would be a collaboration between the private sectors & government

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the war at home

The War At Home

Chapter 11-3

congress gives power to wilson
Congress Gives Power to Wilson
  • WWI was not only fought on the battle fields but on the home front as well
  • Businesses went from producing consumer goods to producing the tools of war
  • The effort would be a collaboration between the private sectors & government
  • Congress would give President Wilson direct control of much of the economy, including the power to regulate prices & even nationalizing private businesses
war industries board
War Industries Board
  • The main regulatory body of the government was the War Industries Board (WIB)
  • This board was under the leadership of Barnard Baruch
  • The main purpose of the board was to regulate & coordinate raw materials, prevent waste, & get the most production out of its resources
  • This board was very successful in that production increased by 20%
  • On the negative side price controls were only applied at the wholesale level causing retail prices to soar, inflation
war industries board1
War Industries Board
  • In addition to the WIB there were other boards set up to regulate specific aspects of the economy such as the RR Administration, Fuel Administration, etc.
  • Things such as gasless Tuesdays. Meatless Mondays, & lightless nights were all implemented to conserve resources
  • Daylight savings was also put into effect during this period, an idea that was first put forth by ben Franklin
war economy
War Economy
  • Wages would rise, some 20%, in some industries but because of inflation households would see only a minor increase
  • Because of the government contracts business & stockholders profits soared
  • Management also saw a large increase in wealth causing an even greater gap between labor & management
  • This would lead to a rise in union membership
  • To deal with disputes between labor & management the National War Labor Board
  • The NWLB improved factory conditions, increased wages, & pushed for the eight hour workday
war financing
War Financing
  • The war would cost the U.S. $35.5 billion
  • To finance the war effort the government raised1/3 of the needed funds through higher taxes
  • The rest was raised through “Liberty Loans” & “Victory Bonds”
  • The bonds were purchased at a set price & had the government promise of repayment at a later date with interest
committee on public information
Committee On Public Information
  • To help sell the war to the public the government set up its first propaganda agency under the leadership of George Creel, Committee on Public Information (CPI)
  • Under the leadership of Creel thousands of posters, paintings, cartoons, & sculptures were created to promote the war
  • In addition 75,000 men were recruited to speak on behalf of the war effort
  • When it came to print media Creel published some 75 million pamphlets, booklets, & leaflets
  • Creel’s tactics were very successful but did inflame hatred & even trampled the civil liberties of some ethnic groups
anti immigrant hysteria
Anti-Immigrant Hysteria
  • The main targets of these attacks were Americans who had emigrated from other nations especially those from Germany & Austria-Hungry
  • Americans from German descent suffered the heaviest attacks
  • Americans with German sounding names lost their jobs, orchestras refused to play German composers works, the German language was no longer taught, & German authors were pulled from library shelves
  • Even diseases were renamed German measles became liberty measles
  • Hamburger became Salisbury steak or liberty sandwich even sauerkraut became liberty cabbage
espionage sedition acts
Espionage & Sedition Acts
  • In June of 1917 congress passed the Espionage & Sedition Acts which called for a $10,000 fine & 20 years in prison for anyone who interfered with the war effort
  • Even newspapers & magazines who criticized the war were fined
  • The acts targeted Socialists & labor leaders
  • Eugene Debs , a socialist leader, received a ten year prison sentence for speaking out against the war
african americans the war
African Americans & the War
  • When it came to African Americans war support was divided
  • Some such as W.E.B. Dubois believed that support for the war would strengthen calls for racial justice
  • While others believed that victims of racial injustice should not support a racist government
  • In the end most African Americans supported the war effort
the great migration
The Great Migration
  • The greatest impact of the war was the Great Migration of African Americans to the North
  • The migration had begun before the war but was hastened as many moved to escape Jim Crow laws as well as to work in Northern industry
  • The migration was possible for 3 reasons

1. Escape racial injustice

2. Northern Jobs

3. Crops were destroyed by drought, floods, & the boll weevil

women in the war
Women in the War
  • When the war broke out women moved into traditional jobs that were held by males
  • It was this willingness to step in & fill the positions of men to keep the war effort moving that would persuade government leaders to support & pass the 19th Amendment granting suffrage