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MATTER & ENERGY. KINETIC THEORY. All matter is made of atoms & molecules that act like tiny particles. Tiny particles are always in motion Higher temperature, faster particles move At same temperature, heavier particles move slower than lighter particles. SOLIDS . Have a definite shape

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kinetic theory
KINETIC THEORY
  • All matter is made of atoms & molecules that act like tiny particles.
  • Tiny particles are always in motion
  • Higher temperature, faster particles move
  • At same temperature, heavier particles move slower than lighter particles
solids
SOLIDS
  • Have a definite shape
  • Have a definite volume
  • Least amount of movement of particles.
  • Particles arranged in a regular pattern and tightly packed.
  • Two types
crystalline solids
CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS
  • Have orderly arrangement of molecules.
  • Diamonds
  • Iron
  • ice
amorphus solids
AMORPHUS SOLIDS
  • Atoms or molecules in no particular order
  • Rubber
  • Wax
  • Bubble gum
liquids
LIQUIDS
  • Have an indefinite shape
  • Have a definite volume
  • will assume the shape of its container.
  • Particles are close together but move about freely.
surface tension
SURFACE TENSION
  • Force acting on particles at surface of a liquid that causes a liquid to form spherical drops.
gases
GASES

Have an indefinite shape

Have an indefinite volume

Can fill any container

plasma
PLASMA
  • most common form of matter.
  • makes up over 99% of the visible universe
  • dangerous, very high energy
  • found in stars, lightning, fire
  • Conducts electric current
  • auroras
thermal energy
THERMAL ENERGY
  • Total kinetic energy of particles that make up an object.
  • Depends on number of particles in substance.
  • Temperature is measure of average kinetic energy.
change of state
CHANGE OF STATE
  • Conversion of substance from one physical form to another.
  • Aka phase change
  • Energy of substance changes
  • Transfer of energy (heat) leads to change of state.
endothermic exothermic reactions
ENDOTHERMIC/EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS
  • Endothermic = heat energy is absorbed, cools surroundings
  • Exothermic = heat energy is released, warms surroundings
melting
MELTING
  • to become altered from a solid to a liquid state usually by heat
  • endothermic
evaporation
EVAPORATION
  • Change of a substance from a liquid to a gas.
  • boiling
  • endothermic
condensation
CONDENSATION
  • Change of a gas to a liquid.
  • exothermic
sublimation
SUBLIMATION
  • Changing directly from solid to gas or gas to solid skipping the liquid state.
  • endothermic
  • formation of frost/snow & dry ice
freezing
FREEZING
  • Changing from a liquid to a solid.
  • exothermic
temperature change vs change of state
TEMPERATURE CHANGE VS. CHANGE OF STATE
  • Temperature of substance does not change during change of state.

Example

  • If you add heat to ice at 0⁰, temperature will not rise until ice has melted.
law of conservation of matter
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER
  • matter cannot be created nor destroyed.
  • It is just converted from one form to another
law of conservation of energy
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
  • Can be converted to another form.