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International Conflict. CHAPTER FIVE. Dr. Clayton Thyne PS 235-001: World Politics Spring 2010 Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations , 8/e Student notes version. Largest contemporary wars: Of the 11 wars, all but Chechnya (Russia) are in the \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_.

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international conflict

International Conflict

CHAPTER FIVE

Dr. Clayton Thyne

PS 235-001: World Politics

Spring 2010

Goldstein & Pevehouse, International Relations, 8/e

Student notes version

slide2
Largest contemporary wars:
  • Of the 11 wars, all but Chechnya (Russia) are in the ________________________________.
  • All but Colombia are in a zone of active fighting spanning parts of Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East.
  • Most peace agreements in the world’s postwar zones are _____________________________.
types of war hegemonic war
Types of War: Hegemonic War
  • War over control of the entire world order – the rules of the international system as a whole, including the role of world hegemony.
  • Last hegemonic war was _________________
  • Likely that due to the power of modern weaponry, this kind of war could not occur any longer without destroying civilization
types of war total war
Types of War: Total War
  • Def:
  • Goal is to…
  • Evolved with industrialization, which further integrated all of society and economy into the practice of war
  • Example:
  • Last total war:
types of war limited war
Types of War: Limited War
  • Includes military actions carried out to…
  • Example:
  • Raids:
types of war civil war
Types of War: Civil War
  • Refers to war between…
    • U.S. Civil War of the 1860s -
    • El Salvador in the 1980s –
    • May often be among the most brutal wars
      • __________ million deaths from 1945 to 1999
        • Compared to ________ million deaths for interstate wars
      • Last _________ years on average
        • Compared to ____________ months for interstate wars
types of war guerrilla war
Types of War: Guerrilla War
  • Includes certain types of civil wars; is warfare without front lines
  • Irregular forces operate in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by, civilian populations.
  • Purpose:
causes of war approaches
Causes of War: Approaches
  • The question of why war breaks out can be approached in different ways.
  • Broad generalizations about the causes of war have been _________________.
  • Wars do not have a single or simple cause.
  • Levels of analysis can help us organize theories of war.
causes of war individual domestic explanations
Causes of War: Individual & Domestic Explanations
  • Individual level of analysis:
    • Rational decisions of leaders:
    • Deviations from rationality:
  • The domestic level of analysis:
causes of war interstate explanations
Causes of War: Interstate Explanations
  • Interstate level:
    • Power transition theory:
    • Deterrence:
    • Arms race:
    • No general formula has been discovered to tell us in what circumstances each of these principles holds true.
causes of war global explanations
Causes of War: Global Explanations
  • Global level of analysis:
  • Several variations on the idea that major warfare in the international system is cyclical.
    • One approach links wars with long economic waves in the world economy (~50 years)
    • Another approach links the largest wars with a 100-year cycle based on the creation and decay of world orders.
  • These cycle theories at best can…
  • Theory of linear long-term change:
conflicts of ideas
Conflicts of Ideas
  • Six types of international conflict:
    • Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests:
    • Conflicts over tangible material interests:
  • Most difficult types of conflict have…
  • These identity-based sources of international conflict today have been shaped historically by…
conflicts over less non tangible material interests nationalism
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests:Nationalism
  • Devotion to the interests of one’s own nation over others
    • May be the most important force in world politics in the past two centuries
    • Nationality is a difficult concept to define precisely.
  • Historical development of “nationalism”
    • Principle of self-determination
conflicts over less non tangible material interests ethnic conflict
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Ethnic Conflict
  • Stems from…
  • Quite possibly the most important source of conflict in the numerous wars now occurring throughout the world.
  • Nationalism tied to territory, often 
  • Ethnic groups:
  • Often form the basis for _____________________________
  • Genocide
    • Def:
conflicts over less non tangible material interests ethnic conflict17
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Ethnic Conflict
  • Causes of ethnic hostility
    • Kinship:
    • History:
    • Ethnocentrism
      • Education can 
    • Very difficult to solve because it’s very hard to divide anything
    • Global identity in the future?
conflicts over less non tangible material interests religious conflict
Because religion is the core of a community’s value system in much of the world, people whose religious practices differ are…

Fundamentalist movements

Secular political organizations

Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Religious Conflict
conflicts over less non tangible material interests ideological conflict
Conflicts over less/non-tangible material interests: Ideological Conflict
  • Ideology _________________ and _______________conflicts between groups and states more than it causes them.
    • Because they have a somewhat weaker hold on core values and absolute truth than religions do, they pose somewhat fewer problems for the international system.
    • China Maoist communism in 1949; Russia’s Leninist communism in 1917, U.S. democracy in 1776
    • Angola
conflicts over tangible material interests territorial disputes
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Territorial Disputes
  • Means of controlling territory – primarily military
    • Can be (1) ____________________________________ or
    • (2) __________________________________________
  • Change in economies  change in territorial conflict:
    • Old days:
    • Modern days:
  • Interstate borders
    • Old days:
    • Post-WWII norm:
      • Little territory has changed hands through force
      • Most changing of borders has happened peacefully (through ICJ or World Court mostly)
  • Secession (def):
    • E.g., US civil war; Chechnya, Bosnia-Serbia
    • Intl norm is against approving of secessionist movements
conflicts over tangible material interests lingering disputes
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Lingering Disputes
  • Israel
    • Israel’s war of independence  cease-fire (1948)
    • Six day war  further expansion (1967)
    • Camp David peace treaty  retraction of borders (1978)
    • Dispute still exists over Gaza Strip (near Egypt), Golan Heights (near Syria), and West Bank (near Jordan)
    • Kashmir: India vs. Pakistan
      • India’s part: inhabited by Muslims (minority in India, majority in Pakistan)
      • Pakistan’s view: India oppressed Kashmiris, thwarts potential popular referendum
      • India’s view: Pakistan aids Islamic radicals, who attack Indian-occupied Kashmir
      • Nagorno-Karabakh: Armenian-populated territory in Azerbaijan
      • Crimean peninsula: Russia vs. Ukraine
      • Many disputes today involve conflicts over tiny (often uninhabitable islands)
conflicts over tangible material interests others
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Others
  • Territorial waters
    • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1973-82)
  • Airspace
conflicts over tangible material interests control of governments
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Control of Governments
  • Most struggles to control territory do not involve _________________________.
  • They are conflicts over which governments will ________________________.
  • International conflicts over the control of governments – along with territorial disputes – are likely to lead to...
conflicts over tangible material interests economic conflict
Conflicts over tangible material interests: Economic Conflict
  • Most pervasive form of conflict in IR; in a global capitalist market, all economic exchanges involve some conflict of interests
  • Conflict 
  • Mercantilism:
  • Lateral pressure theory:
  • Drug trafficking:
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