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Aquaculture and Government. Introduction: Aquaculture & Gov’t . 1856 Massechusetts—First State Fish Commission, 15 yrs. before Federal intervention in fish culture.

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Aquaculture and Government

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introduction aquaculture gov t
Introduction: Aquaculture & Gov’t
  • 1856 Massechusetts—First State Fish Commission, 15 yrs. before Federal intervention in fish culture.
  • 1870 CT, NH, NJ, NY, Penn, RI, VT all had fish commissions—primary roll, stock enhancement, spawning, hatching, local fisheries managment. Also...soliciation of local culturists to help.
introduction aquaculture gov t3
Introduction: Aquaculture & Gov’t
  • 1871 Spencer Baird, lobbied for U.S. Fish and Fisheries Commission, Pres. Grant signed it into law with Baird as its commissioner.
  • Baird created a research organization (now Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, WHOI)
  • During his tenure trillions of fish were stocked across the U.S.!
  • Baird’s greatest success may have been his ultimate downfall as introduction of many non-native species were established into new waters, a practice today which would be in violation of many laws.
more history
More history...
  • 1904 USFFC became the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries (in Dept. of Commerce)
  • 1950 USBF divided into Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (BCF) and Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife....this latter agency is now known as the USFWS in the Dept. of Interior.
  • 1971 BCF renamed National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) a division within National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) USDC.
still more
Still more...
  • 1977-78 US Farm Bill acknowledges aquaculture’s roll in meeting the goals of the USDA.
  • US Aquaculture Plan is formed!
trouble on the horizon
Trouble on the horizon?
  • During Pres. Carter’s tenure, the US Joint Subcommittee on Aquaculture is formed (many agencies involved here).
  • Aquaculture regulation under a menage à trois of regulation between the USDI (fresh to marine), USDC (marine aquaculture), and USDA (the remaining spp.)!?
  • 1980 National Aquaculture Act, and development of a national aquaculture plan (revised in 1987)...didn’t we just do that??
  • Since then, control waivers between USDA and USDC.

National Aquaculture Act of 1980 and National Aquaculture Improvement Act of 1985

National Policy (from the National Aquaculture Act of 1980):

"Congress declares that aquaculture has the potential for reducing the United States trade deficit in fisheries products, for augmenting existing commercial and recreational fisheries, and for producing other renewable resources, thereby assisting the United States in meeting its future food needs and contributing to the solution of world resource problems. It is, therefore, in the national interest, and it is the national policy, to encourage the development of aquaculture in the United States."

aquaculture act of 1980
Aquaculture Act of 1980
  • The harvest of certain species of fish and shellfish exceeds levels of optimum sustainable yield, thereby making it more difficult to meet the increasing demand for aquatic food.

(2) To satisfy the domestic market for aquatic food, the United Statesimports more than 50 per centum of its fish and shellfish, but this dependence on imports adversely affects the national balance of payments and contributes to the uncertainty of supplies.

(3) Although aquaculture currently contributes approximately 13 percent of world seafood production, less than 6 percent of current United States seafood production results from aquaculture. Domestic aquaculture production, therefore, has the potential for significant growth.

(4) Aquacultural production of aquatic plants can provide sources of food, industrial materials, pharmaceuticals, and energy, and can assist in the control and abatement of pollution.

aquaculture act of 19809
Aquaculture Act of 1980

(5) The rehabilitationand enhancement offish and shellfish resources are desirable applications of aquacultural technology.

(6) The principal responsibility for the development of aquaculture in the United States must rest with the private sector.

(7) Despite its potential, the development of aquaculture in the United States has been inhibited by many scientific, economic, legal, and production factors, such as inadequate credit, diffused legal jurisdiction, the lack of management information, the lack of supportive Government policies, and the lack of reliable supplies of seed stock.

(8) Many areas of the United States are suitable for aquaculture, but are subject to land-use or water-use management policies that do not adequately consider the potential for aquaculture and may inhibitthedevelopmentof aquaculture.

PURPOSE.--It is the purpose of the Act to promote aquaculture in the United States by-
  • declaring a national aquaculture policy;

(2) establishing and implementing a national aquaculture development plan;

(3) establishing the Department of Agriculture as the lead Federal agency with respect to the coordination and dissemination of national aquaculture information by designating the Secretary of Agriculture as the permanent chairman of the coordinating group and by establishing a National Aquaculture Information Center within the Department of Agriculture; and

(4) encouraging aquaculture activities and programs in both the public and private sectors of the economy; that will result in increased aquacultural production, the coordination of domestic aquaculture efforts, the conservation and enhancement of aquatic resources, the creation of new industries and job opportunities, and other national benefits.

federal department index
Federal Department Index
  • United States Department of Agriculture: enforcement of a standard identity, inspection of products.
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
  • Regional Aquaculture Centers
  • Farm Service Agency
  • Agricultural Marketing Service
  • National Agricultural Statistics Service
  • Foreign Agricultural Service
  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
  • Federal Crop Insurance Information
  • National Agricultural Library
  • Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
  • Current Research Information System
federal department index12
Federal Department Index
  • United States Department of Commerce: regulation of catch imports, and processing of fish.
  • National Marine Fisheries Service
  • National Sea Grant College Program
  • Economics and Statistics Administration
  • Economic Development Administration
  • National Weather Service
  • National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service
federal department index13
Federal Department Index
  • United States Department of Interior
  • U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
  • U.S. Geological Survey
federal department index14
Federal Department Index
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services: enforcement of food legislation regardign food quality, human health and sanitation.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) -Center for Veterinary Medicine -Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)
federal department index15
Federal Department Index

National Science Foundation

Environmental Protection Agency: control and enforcement of food processes resulting in pollution of waters, land, air. Control of pesticide application and water supplies.

Tennessee Valley Authority

National Research Support Project No. 7

United States Agency for International Development

  • National Sea Grant Program (1960-) (under NOAA): conducts research, extension, education at the college level.
  • Regional Aquaculture Centers: authorized by USDA to conduct research, extension and enhance profitable aquaculture.
    • North Eastern
    • North Central
    • Southern
    • Western
    • Tropical Pacific
  • 1993 USDA given control of most commercial aquaculture...