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1. Exploring Twenty-First-Century World Politics. M ercator Projection. A classic Eurocentric view of the world it placed Europe at the center of the world it exaggerated Europe’s importance and size popular in 16 th -century Europe. Peter’s Projection.

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M ercator projection
Mercator Projection


1 exploring twenty first century world politics



1 exploring twenty first century world politics



1 exploring twenty first century world politics

  • it centers on the mid-Atlantic

  • the sizes and shapes of continents toward the outer edges of the circle

    : distorted to give a sense of spherical perspective


1 exploring twenty first century world politics

  • all maps of the globe: distorted.

  • each

    : a model of reality

    : an abstraction that highlights some features of the globe while ignoring others.

  • almost impossible to perfectly represent

    the three-dimensional globe on a two-dimensional piece of paper.

  • we cannot capture fully the complexity and

    configurations of even physical objects.


Images in world politics
Images in World Politics

  • Anti-Americanism in Middle East Asia

    : the US is a global bad guy, founded on the impulses of materials and expansionism.

  • Westerners (Americans)

    : view the US as a place of democracy, liberty, and opportunity.


1 exploring twenty first century world politics


Should we believe what we see
Should We Believe What We See? and hostilities.

  • mental map, picture, and structure

    : a habitual way of organizing information

  • many of our images of the real world

    : be built on our mental map, consciousness, unconscious, experiences, memories, expectations, illusions, and misconceptions.

  • We all are prisoners of the perceptual predispositions

    : shape our identities, attitudes, beliefs and the images of world.


1 exploring twenty first century world politics

  • What we observe is influenced and hostilities.

    : by our preexisting values and expectation

    : by a mental map

    - society has constructed about how to view objects

  • we are prone to distort reality in accord with our needs.

  • the mind

    : selects, screens, and filters what it perceives.


Factors influencing perceptions in world politics
Factors Influencing Perceptions and hostilities.in World Politics

  • early childhood experiences

  • the socialization or learning we receive as children (at home and school etc.)

  • images advanced by mass media, leaders and groups

  • our images of world history shaped by the teachers and books

  • opinions about world affairs articulated by close friends

  • our positions and roles (student, parent, bureaucrat, diplomat etc.)


Seven blind men and the elephant
Seven Blind Men and The Elephant and hostilities.

  • Old fable from India

  • “They talked quietly.”

    “Each one of us knows only a part.”

    “To find out the whole truth we must put all the parts together.”

    – Communication and Sharing Ideas

  • The Man in part may make a fine tale, but wisdom comes from seeing the whole.



The role of theory
The role of theory and hostilities.

  • Theory

    : an intellectual tool

    • provides us with a way to organize the complexity of the world

    • helps us to see how phenomena are interrelated.

  • The role of theory

    : to make the world more intelligible or better understood.


  • 1 exploring twenty first century world politics


    1 exploring twenty first century world politics

    • Realism and hostilities.

      : focuses on the concept of power

      : states are the most important actors

    • Liberalism

      : emphasizes the role of institutions

      : state is not a unitary actor

    • Constructivism

      : pays attention to the powerful roles of ideas and norms (ideational factors) in world politics


    Is objective and scientific theory possible
    Is objective and scientific theory possible? and hostilities.

    • religion, ethical systems, other elements of culture, and economic conditions

      : influence people’s value, and judgments.

    • we are not neutral.

    • there may be an objective reality in world politics.

    • But we perceive it

      : only through prisms fashioned by

      • our past experiences

      • present values

      • our training etc.


    1 exploring twenty first century world politics

    • Theory and hostilities.

      : not so much a value-free enterprise as a value-explicit one.

    • However, at least theory

      : helps us clarify our thinking about values.

    • The most efficacious way to break conceptual jails

      : to find conceptual equipment that is relatively free of bias.


    1 exploring twenty first century world politics

    • Social Scientists construct different theories and hostilities.

      : to make international events understandable.

    • A paradigm or dominant way of looking at a particular subject

      : influences judgments regarding what analytic criteria should govern investigations.

    • Throughout history, paradigms

      : have been revised or abandoned

      - when their assertions have failed to mirror the prevailing patterns of international behavior.


    1 exploring twenty first century world politics

    • Major wars and hostilities.

      : brining about significant changes in the theoretical interpretation of world affairs.

    • In 20th C. three system-transforming wars: WWI, WWII, the Cold War.


    The evolution of theory
    The Evolution of Theory and hostilities.


    Early 20 th c liberalism idealism
    Early 20 and hostilities.thC – Liberalism (Idealism)

    • At the dawn of the 20th Century, the world was optimistic.

    • Hague Peace Conferences in 1899 and 1907:

      : hope of controlling arms.

    • Russia’s Bolshevik revolution in 1919 and the rise of the Hitler in the 1930s

      : challenged conventional European thinking (liberalism).

    • Nonetheless, liberalism was still popular after WWI.

    • They advocated creating international institutions

      : to replace the anarchical and war-prone balance-of-power system


    After wwii rise of realism
    After WWII – Rise of Realism and hostilities.

    • The consequences of WWII

      : provoked strong criticism of the liberal idealist paradigm.

    • Critics

      : blamed idealist’s (liberalist) naïve moralistic assumptions about the possibility of peace.

    • The lessons from WWI and WWII

      : led many to construct a revised set of perceptions and beliefs known as Realism.

    • Among the principal thinkers

      : E. H. Carr, George Kennan, Hans Morgenthau etc.


    The cold war dominance of realism
    The Cold War – Dominance of Realism and hostilities.

    • The pessimistic realist thinking

      : fit the needs of a pessimistic age: 1940s – 80s

      - conflict between the US and the Soviet Union

      - the expansion of the Cold War

      - the stockpiling of nuclear weapons

      - arms races between the US and the Soviet Union

      - incessant competition among states


    The cold war challenge of liberalism
    The Cold War – Challenge of Liberalism and hostilities.

    • But realism did not account for

      : significant new developments in world politics in 1950s and 60s.

    • In Western Europe the cooperation pursuit of mutual advantage rather than narrow self-interest appeared.

    • Karl Deutsch, “Security Community.” (1957): Transactionalism

    • Ernest Haas, “The Uniting of Europe.” (1958): Neo-functionalism

    • Détente


    1 exploring twenty first century world politics

    • Furthermore, many of the assumptions of the realism and hostilities.

      : were not testable

      : realism began to be questioned.

    • By the end of 1960s, realism

      : was criticized by behavioral scientists

      - who apply scientific methods to the study of world politics


    The cold war neorealism
    The Cold War – neorealism and hostilities.

    • Kenneth Waltz, “Theory of International Politics” (1979)

    • In late 1970s and 80s, the neorealism within the realist theoretical tradition

      : has arisen to overcome realism’s limitations.


    The cold war and the end of cold war reemergence of liberalism neoliberalism
    The Cold War and the End of Cold War – Reemergence of Liberalism (Neoliberalism)

    • Keohane and Nye, “Power and Interdependence.” (1977)

    • In 1970s, a new analytical perspective know as “complex interdependence”

      : arose to question’s key assumption that states are the only important actors on the global stage.

      : emphasizes the growing importance of nonstate actors


    1 exploring twenty first century world politics

    • Krasner (ed.). “International Regime.” (1983) Liberalism (Neoliberalism)

    • Regimes

      : are institutionalized or regularized patterns (principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures) of cooperation in a given issue area.

    • Informal and formal international institutions

      - Free Trade Regime, Japan-the US Whale Regime

      - UN, IMF, EU


    The end of cold war and 21 st c
    The End of Cold War and 21 Liberalism (Neoliberalism)st C

    • In the last decade of 20th Century, dissatisfaction with realism/neorealism began to rise.

      - realism/neorealism failed to predict the peaceful end of the Cold War

      - it appears that realist approach would not be an adequate guide for the future of international politics


    Constructivism
    Constructivism Liberalism (Neoliberalism)

    • Nicholas Onuf. “World of Our Making.” (1989)