1. Exploring Twenty-First-Century World Politics. M ercator Projection. A classic Eurocentric view of the world it placed Europe at the center of the world it exaggerated Europe’s importance and size popular in 16 th -century Europe. Peter’s Projection.
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: distorted to give a sense of spherical perspective
: a model of reality
: an abstraction that highlights some features of the globe while ignoring others.
the three-dimensional globe on a two-dimensional piece of paper.
configurations of even physical objects.
: the US is a global bad guy, founded on the impulses of materials and expansionism.
: view the US as a place of democracy, liberty, and opportunity.
(1) the tragedy of the destruction of the World Trade Center on Sep. 11, 2001
(2) Bombing in London on July 7, 2005
: the “have-not” is unhappy about the U.S. and British involvement in Middle East affairs.
: a habitual way of organizing information
: be built on our mental map, consciousness, unconscious, experiences, memories, expectations, illusions, and misconceptions.
: shape our identities, attitudes, beliefs and the images of world.
: by our preexisting values and expectation
: by a mental map
- society has constructed about how to view objects
: selects, screens, and filters what it perceives.
“Each one of us knows only a part.”
“To find out the whole truth we must put all the parts together.”
– Communication and Sharing Ideas
: an intellectual tool
: to make the world more intelligible or better understood.
: Realism and Liberalism.
: focuses on the concept of power
: states are the most important actors
: emphasizes the role of institutions
: state is not a unitary actor
: pays attention to the powerful roles of ideas and norms (ideational factors) in world politics
: influence people’s value, and judgments.
: only through prisms fashioned by
: not so much a value-free enterprise as a value-explicit one.
: helps us clarify our thinking about values.
: to find conceptual equipment that is relatively free of bias.
: to make international events understandable.
: influences judgments regarding what analytic criteria should govern investigations.
: have been revised or abandoned
- when their assertions have failed to mirror the prevailing patterns of international behavior.
: brining about significant changes in the theoretical interpretation of world affairs.
: hope of controlling arms.
: challenged conventional European thinking (liberalism).
: to replace the anarchical and war-prone balance-of-power system
: provoked strong criticism of the liberal idealist paradigm.
: blamed idealist’s (liberalist) naïve moralistic assumptions about the possibility of peace.
: led many to construct a revised set of perceptions and beliefs known as Realism.
: E. H. Carr, George Kennan, Hans Morgenthau etc.
: fit the needs of a pessimistic age: 1940s – 80s
- conflict between the US and the Soviet Union
- the expansion of the Cold War
- the stockpiling of nuclear weapons
- arms races between the US and the Soviet Union
- incessant competition among states
: significant new developments in world politics in 1950s and 60s.
: were not testable
: realism began to be questioned.
: was criticized by behavioral scientists
- who apply scientific methods to the study of world politics
: has arisen to overcome realism’s limitations.
: arose to question’s key assumption that states are the only important actors on the global stage.
: emphasizes the growing importance of nonstate actors
: are institutionalized or regularized patterns (principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures) of cooperation in a given issue area.
- Free Trade Regime, Japan-the US Whale Regime
- UN, IMF, EU
- realism/neorealism failed to predict the peaceful end of the Cold War
- it appears that realist approach would not be an adequate guide for the future of international politics