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Lecture 3. Zener Region. As the reverse voltage increases the diode can avalanche-breakdown (zener breakdown). Zener breakdown occurs when the electric field near the junction becomes large enough to excite valence electrons directly into the conduction band and generate carriers.

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Presentation Transcript

### Lecture 3

• As the reverse voltage increases the diode can avalanche-breakdown (zener breakdown).

• Zener breakdown occurs when the electric field near the junction becomes large enough to excite valence electrons directly into the conduction band and generate carriers

• As the operating point of a diode moves from one region to another the resistance of the diode will also change due to the nonlinear shape of the characteristic curve

• The type of applied voltage or signal will define the resistance level of interest

• Three different types of applied voltage

• DC or Static Resistance

• AC or Dynamic Resistance

• Average AC Resistance

• The application of a dc voltage to a circuit containing a semiconductor diode will re­sult in an operating point on the characteristic curve that will not change with time

• The resistance of the diode at the operating point can be found simply by finding the corresponding levels of VD and ID

• The lower current through a diode the higher the dc resistance level

• Determine the dc resistance levels for the diode of Fig. 1.31 at

• (a) ID = 2 mA

• (b) ID = 20 mA

• (c) VD= -10 V

Figure 1.31

• The varying input will move the instantaneous operating point up and down a region of the characteristics and thus defines a specific change in current and voltage as shown in Fig. 1.32

Figure 1.32

• A straight line drawn tangent to the curve through the Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.33 will define a particular change in voltage and current that can be used to determine the ac or dynamic resistance for this region of the diode characteristics

• In equation form,

• In general, therefore, the lower the Q-point of operation (smaller current or lower voltage) the higher the ac resistance.

Figure 1.33 Determining the ac resistance at a Q-point.

EXAMPLE 1.2 Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.33 will define a particular change in voltage and current that can be used to determine the

For the characteristics of Fig. 1.34:

• Determine the ac resistance at ID = 2 mA.

• Determine the ac resistance at ID = 25 mA.

• Compare the results of parts (a) and (b) to the dc resistances at each current level.

Figure 1.34 Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.33 will define a particular change in voltage and current that can be used to determine the

Average AC Resistance Q-point as shown in Fig. 1.33 will define a particular change in voltage and current that can be used to determine the

• If the input signal is sufficiently large to produce a broad swing such as indicated in Fig. 1.35, the resistance associated with the device for this region is called the aver­age ac resistance

• The average ac resistance is, by definition, the resistance deter­mined by a straight line drawn between the two intersections established by the maximum and minimum values of input voltage

Summary Table indicated limit

Exercise indicated limit

• Determined the static or dc resistance of the commercially available diode of figure 1.19 at a forward-bias current of 1 mA

• Determined the static or dc resistance of the commercially available diode of figure 1.19 at a reverse voltage of -10 V. How does it compare to the value determined at a reverse voltage of -30 V?