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BIO 10 Lecture 10. REPRODUCTION: CHROMOSOMES AND HEREDITY. An Introduction to Mendel and His Peas: 1856-1863. Research in Brno, Czech Republic

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bio 10 lecture 10

BIO 10 Lecture 10



an introduction to mendel and his peas 1856 1863
An Introduction to Mendel and His Peas:1856-1863

Research in Brno, Czech Republic

Observed the inheritance patterns of seven inherited physical characteristics in several generations of pea plantsand applied mathematics to discover the two basic laws that govern their behavior

Did his work before chromosomes (1880's) or DNA (1950's) had been discovered

Was a monk who grew his pea plants in the monastery garden

-Genetic information is carried by discrete entities (genes)

Complex organisms carry two copies of each gene but pass only one copy to each gamete

Each gene controls a single trait (e.g. seed color) but different forms of the same gene (alleles) can confer different expressions of that trait (e.g. yellow vs. green seeds)

Mendel's First Law: Law of Segregation

An individual that carries two of the same allele for a gene is homozygous. An individual that carries two different alleles for a gene is heterozygous.

In a heteroygote, only one allele is physically expressed; this allele is dominant(A) over the unexpressed, recessive(a)allele.

Law of Segregationcontinued...

genotype vs phenotype
Genotype vs. Phenotype
  • The phenotypeof an organism is its physical appearance or behavior
    • This is all Mendel could actually study
    • "The mature seed is yellow" = phenotype
  • The genotype of an organism is its genetic make-up
    • Mendel inferred how genes behaved based on his observations of the patterns in which phenotypes were inherited
    • Yy = genotype

YY = yellow

Yy = yellow

yy = green

Punnett Square predicts

3:1 phenotypic ratio

- When two genes and their alleles are followed through a genetic cross, the alleles of the two different genes are randomly shed into the gametes without regard to one another - i.e. independently

Therefore, a dihybrid will create 4 different types of gametes in equal proportions: AB, ab, Ab, and aB

Mendel's Second Law: Law of Independent Assortment


Meiosis and the Law of

Independent Assortment

short review of lecture 10
Short Review of Lecture 10

How many gametes, and what types, can be produced by a pea plant with the genotype PP? How about Pp? pp?

How many gametes, and what types, can be produced by a pea plant with the genotype PpTt? How about PPTt?

How many gametes, and what types, can be produced by a pea plant with the genotype PpTtYy? How about PPTtYy?