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Beauty in the Universe. Innermost Space. High Energy Particle Physics is a study of the smallest pieces of matter. It investigates the deepest and most fundamental aspects of nature. It investigates (among other things) the nature of the universe immediately after the Big Bang.

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innermost space
Innermost Space

High Energy Particle Physics is a study of the smallest pieces of matter.

It investigates the deepest and most fundamental aspects of nature.

It investigates (among other things) the nature of the universe immediately after the Big Bang.

It also explores physics at temperatures not common for the past 15 billion years (or so).

periodic table

Helium

Neon

Periodic Table

u

u

u

d

d

d

Neutron

Electron

Proton

Gluons hold quarks together

Photons hold atoms together

All atoms are made

of protons, neutrons

and electrons

slide5

t

u

d

b

While quarks have similar electric charge, they have vastly different masses (but zero size!)

c

s

slide7

Why three dimensions?

What gives particles their mass?

Mysteries of the Quantum Universe

Are there new forces and symmetries that we don’t yet know?

Are the forces and particles of which we do know just different faces of a deeper, unifying principle?

fermi national accelerator laboratory a k a fermilab
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(a.k.a. Fermilab)
  • Begun in 1968
  • First beam 1972 (200, then 400 GeV)
  • Upgrade 1983 (900 GeV)
  • Upgrade 2001 (980 GeV)

Jargon alert:1 Giga Electron Volt

(GeV) is 100,000 times more energy

than the particle beam in your TV.

If you made a beam the hard way,

it would take 1,000,000,000 batteries

slide11

The Main Injector upgrade was completed in 1999.

  • The new accelerator increases the number of
  • possible collisions per second by 10-20.
  • DØ and CDF have undertaken massive
  • upgrades to utilize the increased
  • collision rate.
  • Run II began March 2001

Expected

Number

of

Events

Huge statistics

for precision physics

at low mass scales

1000

Formerly rare processes

become high statistics

processes

100

Increased reach

for discovery physics

at highest masses

10

Run II

1

Run I

Increasing ‘Violence’

of Collision

how do you detect collisions
How Do You Detect Collisions?
  • Use one of two large multi-purpose particle detectors at Fermilab (DØ and CDF).
  • They’re designed to record collisions of protons colliding with antiprotons at nearly the speed of light.
  • They’re basically cameras.
  • They let us look back in time.
typical detector now
Typical Detector (Now)
  • Weighs 5,000 tons
  • Can inspect 10,000,000 collisions/second
  • Will record 50 collisions/second
  • Records approximately 10,000,000 bytes/second
  • Will record 1015(1,000,000,000,000,000) bytes in the next run (1 PetaByte).

30’

30’

50’

remarkable photos
Remarkable Photos

In this collision, a top and

anti-top quark were created,

helping establish their existence

This collision is the most violent

ever recorded (and fully understood). It required that

particles hit within 10-19 m or

1/10,000 the size of a proton

modern cosmology
Modern Cosmology
  • Approximately 15 billion years ago, all of the matter in the universe was concentrated at a single point
  • A cataclysmic explosion (of biblical proportions perhaps?) called theBig Bangcaused the matter to fly apart.
  • In the intervening years, the universe has been expanding, cooling as it goes.
slide17

Fermilab

4x10-12

seconds

Now

(13.7 billion years)

Stars form

(1 billion years)

Atoms form

(380,000 years)

Nuclei form

(180 seconds)

Nucleons form

(10-10 seconds)

Quarks differentiate (10-34 seconds?)

??? (Before that)

slide18

Why three dimensions?

What gives particles their mass?

Mysteries of the Quantum Universe

Are there new forces and symmetries that we don’t yet know?

Back to the

Mysteries

Are the forces and particles of which we do know just different faces of a deeper, unifying principle?

slide19

In 1964, Peter Higgs postulated a physics

mechanism which gives all particles their mass.

This mechanism is a field which permeates the

universe.

If this postulate is correct, then one of the

signatures is a particle (called the Higgs Particle).

Fermilab’s Leon Lederman co-authored a book

on the subject called The God Particle.

bottom

top

Undiscovered!

hunting for higgs
Hunting for Higgs

For technical reasons, we look for Higgs bosons in association with a W or Z boson.

In the region where the Higgs boson is expected, we expect it to decay nearly-exclusively into b-quarks

b jet

electron

neutrino

(MET)

the conundrum of gravity
The Conundrum of Gravity
  • Why is gravity so much weaker (~10-35×) the other forces?
    • Completely unknown
  • One possibility is that gravity can access more dimensions than the other forces
are more dimensions tenable
Are More Dimensions Tenable?
  • Newton’s Law of Gravity
  • Clearly indicates a 3D space structure.

Or does it?

nature of higher dimensions
Nature of Higher Dimensions
  • What if the additional dimensions had a different shape?
  • What if the additional dimensions were small?
access to additional dimensions
Access to Additional Dimensions
  • What if gravity alone had access to the additional dimensions?
access to additional dimensions27
Access to Additional Dimensions
  • What if gravity alone had access to the additional dimensions?
a model with n dimensions
A Model with “n” Dimensions.

p

e

q

q’

G

p

e

  • Gravity communicating with these extra dimensions could produce an unexpectedly large number of electron or photon pairs.
  • Thus, analysis of the production rate of electrons and photon provides sensitivity to these extra dimensions.
  • Large energies are required to produce such pairs.
once again there are interesting events way out on the mass tail
Once again there are interesting events! (way out on the mass tail.)

electrons

photons

ee pair gg pair

slide30

Physicists

Computer Scientists

Engineers (Electrical & Mechanical)

Technicians (Electrical & Mechanical)

Trades (Plumbing, Electrical, Carpentry)

slide31

Physicist’s

Lifestyle

slide32

Physicist’s

Lifestyle

slide33

Physicists

Lifestyle

Always learning.

Indulge curiosity.

5 weeks of paid vacation a year

Very free and open schedule

Paid travel opportunities

slide34

Physicists

Education/Career

Disclaimer

College: (4 years)

Go into debt.

Major in physics, learn a lot of math and computer skills

High School: (4 years)

Concentrate on science, math, programming and

English

Be a “postdoc” (4-6 years)

Get paid to improve your knowledge

($45k)

Or go into

industry ($60k+)

Full researcher:

(35 years old, $75k)

Have fun for the rest of your life.

Or go into industry ($85-120k)

Graduate School:

(4-8 years, Ph.D.)

Get paid to go to school ($20k).

Learn stuff

summary
Summary
  • Particle physics allows us to study some of the deepest mysteries of reality.
  • We know a whole bunch of stuff.
  • The things we don’t know, we’re studying like mad.
  • The mysteries mentioned here are unsolved. We need help.

Join us.

slide38

Physicist’s

Lifestyle

slide39

Physicist’s

Lifestyle