The Course on Indigenous Knowledge for Under Graduate Students with specific reference to INDIAN MUSIC April 2011, Christ University, Bangalore
Expert Committee Project Holder: Vice Chancellor Fr. Thomas C. Mathew Project Co-ordinator: Prof. Kennedy Andrew Thomas Internal Experts : Chitra.s (Guest lecturer ) Asst. Professor : PrabinVillareesh Asst. Professor : AnupamaNayar Asst. Professor : Padmakumar M.M. Student Committee: AnkitAggarwal, AshwinKumar,Shamoon, AkhilScaria, Heidi Mamatha, PreetiSondur, BhavnaGowri.
External Experts Dr. Priyashri Rao Vidwan Umashankar
Music, to put it very simply, is a series of sounds arranged in a pleasing sequence. But sound, and in particular musical sound is perceived in terms of combinations of pitches. • There are many aspects and facets of music which make for interesting hearing, studying and appreciating. • The main objective of this course is to orient the students on the various fundamental concepts based on the principles of music in a systematic and interesting manner. It is hoped that at the conclusion of this course, the student is in a position to develop a fascination and a taste for music by enjoying the spirit of music.
Music like the art of dance, sculpture, painting to mention a few, is fine art. In other words, a musical composition or piece is performed purely with the intention to delight both the performer(s) and the listener(s). The varying enthralling tonal structures that music creates captures the listeners attention in such entirety, that all thought of self is temporarily shelved, whilst surrendering to the pleasing succession of pitches. • The captivating tonal structures are woven to form a structure or form integrating melody, rhythm and syllable.
Melody is progression or movement from one pitch to the other and to the other successively in a pleasing manner. • Rhythm is the aspect of music which measures melody by way of beats or claps in particular rhythmic patterns. • Syllable manifests melody as (a) mnemonic sounds representing fixed pitches called as ‘svara-s’ and (b) the words of a poem, referred to as meaningful words or ‘s¡hitya’. • The musical interplay between the three aspects of melody, rhythm and syllable creates endless delightful strains of music.
Unit One – Indian Music 1.1 An introduction to ‘Indian Music’ with the following sub-divisions 1.1.1 Classical Music 1.1.2 Devotional Music 1.1.3 Folk Music 1.1.4 Film Music
Unit One – Indian Music Indian Music • The near equivalent terms for the three aspects of music, that is melody, rhythm and syllable are r¡ga, t¡la and pada as referred to in Indian music. Along with the aspect of ‘bh¡va’ or emotion or expression, the four-some make up the rudiments in the practice and performance of Indian music. • ‘S¡hitya’ conveys the emotions through the meaning of the words whereas r¡ga is the vehicle which brings forth the emotion of music as such.
Unit One – Indian Music Classical Music • Music particularly in India, is practiced and performed in different forms or genres. The classical form is popular in two modes namely, Carnatic and Hindust¡ni. Other well-liked genres are devotional music, film music and folk music. In all forms r¡ga, t¡la, s¡hitya and bh¡va form the fulcrum with the difference occurring in • (a) the emphasis on one aspect and, • (b) strict adherence or relaxation of the rules
Unit One – Indian Music • As stated by the famous Sitar exponent Pa¸·it Ravi Shankar, the Indian classical forms of music are principally based on r¡ga and t¡la and not on harmony, counterpoint, chords, modulation and other basics of Western classical music. • Classical music usually is practiced strictly adhering to the grammar. Tradition or ‘samprad¡ya’ is also diligently followed. Improvisations and creativity are given wings well within the boundaries chalked out.
Unit One – Indian Music • Famous Carnatic classical musicians are vocalists late Smt M S Subbulakshmi and Shri Maharajapuram Santhanam and famous violinist Shri Lalgudi G Jayaraman • Well-known Hindust¡ni musicians are Smt Kishori Amonkar, the famous sarod exponent Shri Amjad Ali Khan, tabla player Zakir Hussein
Unit One – Indian Music Devotional Music • Devotional music as the name suggests has at its core the element of ‘bhakti’ more than any other aspect. The aspects of r¡ga and t¡la take the backseat. While the aspects of s¡hitya and bh¡va are accorded most importance.
Unit One – Indian Music Folk Music • India has a very rich tradition of folk music. The cultural diversity of the country creates endless varieties of folk styles. Each region has its own particular style. Folk music is usually a community-based group performance of music. The tune is very simple and the lyrics reflect the feelings of the singer or the situation. Folk music is sung during occasions such as harvest, marriage, festivals etc. Folk music is more often than not accompanied by folk dance. Some examples of folk music are Bihu of Assam and L¡va¸i of Mah¡r¡shtra.
Unit One – Indian Music Film Music • Film music is music composed specifically for the films. The lyrics, the musical score of the song and the arrangement of music of different instruments are specially created for a particular song. Usually a r¡ga is the base scale for a song but depending on the mood reflected in the lyrics musical phrases not occurring in the base r¡ga are also included. It is perhaps fair to say that film music generously borrows from other genres of music too.
Unit Two - Indian Classical Music 2.1 An introduction to Indian Classical Music 2.2 Introduction to Carnatic and Hindust¡ni systems of classical music with the following sub-headings 2.2.1 History 2.2.2 R¡ga Classification System 2.2.3 T¡la System 2.2.4 Compositions 2.2.5 Composers
Unit Two – Indian Classical Music History • The concepts of r¡ga, t¡la and pada form the core of Indian classical music. Bh¡va or emotion and samprad¡ya or tradition are also important to classical music. • Indian classical music has a hoary tradition dating back to the 2nd century BC. The N¡¶ya¿¡stra is the earliest available literature on music dated between the 2nd BC and 2nd AD. However music is constantly evolving and is quite differently practiced today as against what is described in the text.
Unit Two – Indian Classical Music There is a plethora of evidence which points to the fact that music was a practicing art form albeit constantly evolving. The various sources include - written works in Tami¾, Samsk¤ta and Telugu - commentaries on the written works - references in sacred and secular literature - sculptures - coins - inscriptions
Unit Two – Indian Classical Music - state documents - district gazetters - works written by foreign travellers - copper plates - personal diaries - oral tradition - musical compositions
Unit Two – Indian Classical Music R¡ga classification system Similar to the other elements in music, the r¡ga classification system has also evolved. Presently the M®lakart¡-Janya r¡ga system of classification is followed in Carnatic music while the T¡¶ system of r¡ga classification is followed in Hindust¡ni music.
Unit Two – Indian Classical Music T¡la System The Sapta T¡la-s with their variations and the C¡pu T¡la-s are most commonly used in Carnatic music.
Unit Two – Indian Classical Music Compositions The musical compositions performed in Carnatic music include the Var¸am, K¤ti, Padam, J¡va½i, Till¡na, D¡sarapada, áloka, Pallavi to mention a few. In Hindust¡ni music the musical compositions include the Bhakan, Khay¡l, Dhrupad, Ùhumri to mention a few.
Unit Two – Indian Classical Music Composers Musicians who composed the compositions are called composers. They composed both the S¡hitya and the Svara part.
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts 3.1 Explanation of fundamental concepts 3.1.1 Svara 3.1.2 Svarsth¡na 3.1.3 áruti 3.1.4 Sth¡yi 3.1.5 R¡ga – melodic aspect 3.1.6 T¡la – rhythmical aspect
3.1.7 Pada – verbal or lyrical aspect 3.1.8 Dh¡tu and M¡tu 3.1.9 Ëroha¸a and Avaroha¸a 3.1.10 System of music notation 3.1.11 Vilambita, Madhya and Druta laya 3.1.12 K¡lapram¡¸a
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Svara Click here to see the video
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Svarasth¡na The fixed position or place of each svara. In an octave there are twelve positions or svarasth¡na-s. Click here to see the video
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts áruti (a) It is a small interval of sound which is taken as a unit for measuring bigger intervals between the svarasth¡na-s. (b) It is the pitch level on which the musician and his accompanying musicians settle their madhyasth¡yi sha·ja.
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Sth¡yi It is also referred to as a register or an octave. The seven svara-s from ‘s’ to ‘n’ make an octave. There are three sth¡yi-s Mandra sth¡yi – lower register Madhya sth¡yi – middle register T¡ra sth¡yi – upper register
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts R¡ga The melodic aspect of music is categorized as R¡ga. The sapta svara-s form the basis of R¡ga-s. From the various permutations and combinations of these sapta svara-s, many simple and complex patterns assumes a vivid personality which bears a specific stamp of indivuduality.
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts T¡la The rhythmic aspect of music is studied in terms of T¡la. T¡la is a device employed to calculate the duration of the music or in other words to measure the time taken to render a composition. T¡la involves certain actions of the hand(s) which act as signals to create a regular rhythmic pattern and to also keep the rhythm from unintended acceleration or deceleration.
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Pada Pada is a verbal or literary aspect of music. The meaningful words are in any language while sometimes syllables such as tana, nadiru taki¶a or meaningless syllables are also used.
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Dh¡tu In a musical composition, the svara part is referred to as dh¡tu. M¡tu In a musical composition, the s¡hitya part is referred to as m¡tu.
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Ëroha & Avaroha Click here to see the video
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Musical notation Musical notation consists of the different symbols and signs used to write or record on paper a piece of music. For instance, || - denotes the end of the t¡la ¡vartana , - denotes the extension of the svara by one count · - a dot beneath the svara ‘d’ indicates the svara in the mandra sth¡yi
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts Vilambita, Madhya and Durita laya Click here to see the video
Unit Three – Fundamental Concepts K¡lapram¡¸a The tempo or speed of music is referred to as k¡lapram¡¸a. Every composition has a particular k¡lapram¡¸a. It is also important to maintain the k¡lapram¡¸a of a song from its commencement to the conclusion.
Unit Four – Concept of R¡ga 4.1 R¡ga classification system 4.1.1 M®lakart¡ R¡ga-s 18.104.22.168 the scheme of 72 m®lakart¡-s 22.214.171.124 names of the cakra-s 126.96.36.199 72 m®lakart¡ chart along with the varieties of the svara-s 188.8.131.52 Ka¶apay¡di Sankhy¡
184.108.40.206 Bhuta Sankhy¡ 220.127.116.11 Viv¡di R¡ga-s 4.1.2 Janya R¡ga-s 18.104.22.168 Up¡nga R¡ga-s 22.214.171.124 Bh¡sh¡nga R¡ga-s 126.96.36.199 Varja R¡ga-s 188.8.131.52 Vakra R¡ga-s
Unit Four – Concept of R¡ga R¡ga is the basis of all melody. It consists of a sequence of svara-s which have a relation (a) to the basic ¿ruti or the ¡dh¡ra sha·ja (b) to each other For a particular r¡ga the svara-s occur in a particular sequence. A sequence of svara-s is called a saµc¡ra. The svara-s are sung in different permutations and combinations.
Unit Four – Concept of R¡ga As Carnatic music evolved over centuries many systems of classifying the r¡ga-s too evolved. The method classification that is in vogue today is the M®lakart¡-janya r¡ga system. M®lakart¡ r¡ga-s are seventy-two in number. These r¡ga-s are also called as Janaka r¡ga or Samp£r¸a r¡ga-s.
Unit Four – Concept of R¡ga A M®lakart¡ r¡ga is that which (a) all the sapta svara-s occur in both the ascent and the descent (b) in both the ascent and the descent the variety of the svara occurs The M®lakart¡ r¡ga-s are arranged in twelve cakra-s.
Unit Four – Concept of R¡ga The arrangement of the M®lakart¡ r¡ga-s is so ingenious that the serial number and the svara-s taken by the M®lakart¡ r¡ga can be deduced from the name of the r¡ga. This method is called the Ka¶apay¡di sankhy¡.
Unit Four – Concept of R¡ga There are r¡ga-s which are not M®lakart¡ r¡ga-s. These r¡ga-s are called Janya r¡ga-s. There are four categories of Janya r¡ga-s - Up¡nga - Bh¡shanga - Vakra - Varja