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NG911 - Next-Generation Emergency Calling. Henning Schulzrinne (with Jong Yul Kim, Wonsang Song, Anshuman Rawat, Matthew Mintz-Habib, Amrita Rajagopal and Xiaotao Wu) Dept. of Computer Science Columbia University. Introduction. Emergency calling is a necessary part of consumer voice service

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Ng911 next generation emergency calling l.jpg

NG911 - Next-Generation Emergency Calling

Henning Schulzrinne

(with Jong Yul Kim, Wonsang Song, Anshuman Rawat, Matthew Mintz-Habib, Amrita Rajagopal and Xiaotao Wu)

Dept. of Computer Science

Columbia University


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Emergency calling is a necessary part of consumer voice service

    • citizen calls PSAP (public safety answering point) for assistance

  • Existing solutions are insufficient

    • may deliver call to wrong PSAP

      • particularly for nomadic and mobile users

    • may not deliver location to PSAP

    • makes it difficult to move call information around

      • e.g., call location to first responder

    • voice only (+ TDD)

NG - November 2006


Voip emergency communications l.jpg
VoIP emergency communications

emergency call

emergency alert

(“inverse 911”)

dispatch

civic coordination

NG - November 2006


Components of emergency calling l.jpg
Components of emergency calling

now

transition

all IP

Contact well-known number or identifier

112

911

112

911

dial 112, 911

urn:service:sos

Route call to location-appropriate PSAP

selective

router

VPC

DNS

Deliver precise location to call taker to dispatch emergency help

phone number  location

(ALI lookup)

in-band  key  location

in-band

NG - November 2006


What makes voip 112 911 hard l.jpg
What makes VoIP 112/911 hard?

NG - November 2006


The core problem l.jpg
The core problem

Voice Service Provider (VSP)

sees emergency call

but does not know caller location

ISP/IAP knows user location

but does not handle call

NG - November 2006


Staged deployment l.jpg
Staged deployment

  • ~6,134 PSAPs in North America

    • average 2-3 active call takers each

    • some serve town, some large parts of a state

    • only ~30% of PSAPs can receive geo coordinates

    • 30-40% may be voice only

    • many using 1970s telecom technology

      • “CAMA” (operator) trunks

      • limited to delivering 8 (regional) or 10 digits (national) of information

      • already facing pressure from supporting cellular services

        • Phase I (cell tower and face) and Phase II (caller geo location)

  • EU: smaller number of PSAPs, but often without location delivery

NG - November 2006


Components l.jpg
Components

  • Location determination

  • Call identification --> service URNs

  • Call routing --> LoST

  • PSAP functionality

    • IVR, logging, multimedia conferencing, …

LoST

(public)

LoST

(private)

ESN

(county, state, …)

PSAP

PSAP

Internet

NG - November 2006


More than pain l.jpg
More than pain…

  • Multimedia from the caller

    • video capture from cell phones

    • video for sign language

    • text messaging and real-time text for the deaf

  • Data delivery

    • caller data: floor plan, hazmat data, medical alerts

    • measurement data input: automobile crash data, EKGs, …

  • Delivering video to the caller

    • e.g., CPR training

  • Load balancing and redundancy

    • currently only limited secondary PSAP

    • VoIP can transfer overload calls anywhere

  • Location delivery

    • carry location with forwarded and transferred calls

    • multiple location objects (civic + geo)

NG - November 2006


Ietf ecrit working group l.jpg
IETF ECRIT working group

  • Emergency Contact Resolution with Internet Technologies

  • Solve four major pieces of the puzzle:

    • location conveyance (with SIPPING & GEOPRIV)

    • emergency call identification

    • mapping geo and civic caller locations to PSAP

    • discovery of local and visited emergency dial string

  • Not solving

    • location discovery

    • inter-PSAP communication and coordination

    • citizen notification

  • Current status:

    • finishing general and security requirements

    • tentative agreement on mapping protocol and identifier

    • later, to work on overall architecture and UA requirements

NG - November 2006


Service urn l.jpg
Service URN

  • Idea: Identifiers to denote emergency calls

    • and other generic (communication) services

  • Described in draft-ietf-ecrit-service-urn-05 (passed WGLC; sent to the IESG)

  • Document defines the following emergency service identifiers:

    sos General emergency services

    sos.animal-control Animal control

    sos.fire Fire service

    sos.gas Gas leaks and gas emergencies

    sos.marine Maritime search and rescue

    sos.mountain Mountain rescue

    sos.physician Physician referral service

    sos.poison Poison control center

    sos.police Police, law enforcement

NG - November 2006


Counseling services l.jpg
‘counseling’ services

NG - November 2006


Services under discussion l.jpg
Services under discussion

  • “211” (social service referral), “311” (non-emergency government services)

  • Emergency services (first responders)

    • used by PSAP, not civilians

    • e.g., urn:service:es:police

  • Non-emergency commercial services

    • urn:service:restaurant.italian

    • urn:service:transportation.taxi

NG - November 2006


Ua recognition ua resolution l.jpg
UA recognition & UA resolution

location information

mapping

mapping may recurse

DHCP

LLDP-MED

9-1-1

(dial string)

leonianj.gov

INVITE urn:service:sos

To: urn:service:sos

Route: sip:[email protected]

<location>

INVITE urn:service:sos

To: urn:service:sos

Route: sip:[email protected]

<location>

identification TBD

NG - November 2006


Ua recognition proxy resolution l.jpg
UA recognition & proxy resolution

mapping

9-1-1

(outbound proxy)

provider.com

INVITE urn:service:sos

To: urn:service:sos

<location>

INVITE urn:service:sos

To: urn:service:sos

Route: sip:[email protected]

<location>

NG - November 2006


Ua recognition proxy resolution proxy location determination l.jpg
UA recognition & proxy resolution(proxy location determination)

mapping

9-1-1

provider.com

INVITE sip:[email protected]

To: urn:service:sos

Geolocation: <location>

INVITE urn:service:sos

To: urn:service:sos

NG - November 2006


Proxy recognition proxy resolution l.jpg
Proxy recognition & proxy resolution

mapping

9-1-1

provider.com

INVITE urn:service:sos

To: sip:[email protected];user=phone

Geolocation: <location>

Route: sip:[email protected]

INVITE sip:[email protected];user=phone

To: sip:[email protected];user=phone

NG - November 2006


Finding the correct psap l.jpg
Finding the correct PSAP

  • Which PSAP should the e-call go to?

    • Usually to the PSAP that serves the geographic area

    • Sometimes to a backup PSAP

    • If no location, then ‘default’ PSAP

NG - November 2006


Lost functionality l.jpg
LoST functionality

  • Satisfies the requirements (draft-ietf-ecrit-requirements) for mapping protocols

  • Civic as well as geospatial queries

    • civic address validation

  • Recursive and iterative resolution

  • Fully distributed and hierarchical deployment

    • can be split by any geographic or civic boundary

    • same civic region can span multiple LoST servers

  • Indicates errors in civic location data  debugging

    • but provides best-effort resolution

  • Supports overlapping service regions

NG - November 2006


Lost properties l.jpg
LoST Properties

  • Minimizes round trips:

    • caching individual mappings

    • returns coverage regions (“hinting”)

      • civic (“all of C=US, A1=NY”) or geo (polygon)

  • Facilitates reuse of Transport Layer Security (TLS)

  • Returns emergency service numbers for a region

  • Query for supported Service URN types

NG - November 2006


Protocol request mapping l.jpg
Protocol request (mapping)

<findService

xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"

recursive="true"

include="serviceBoundary invalid valid unchecked">

<location

profile="urn:ietf:params:lost:location-profile:basic-civic">

<civicAddress

xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr">

<country>Germany</country>

<A1>Bavaria</A1>

<A3>Munich</A3>

<A6>Neu Perlach</A6>

<HNO>96</HNO>

<PC>81675</PC>

</civicAddress>

</location>

<service>urn:service:sos.police</service>

</findService>

NG - November 2006


Lost find service response warning example l.jpg
LoST “Find Service” response/warning example

<findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1">

<mapping ttl=“1990-12-31T23:59:60Z”>

<displayName xml:lang="de">München Polizei-Abteilung</displayName>

<service>urn:service:sos.police</service>

<serviceBoundary profile=”civic”>

<civicAddress xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr">

<country>Germany</country>

<A1>Bavaria</A1>

<A3>Munich</A3>

<PC>81675</PC>

</civicAddress>

</serviceBoundary>

<uri>sip:[email protected]</uri>

<uri>xmpp:[email protected]</uri>

<serviceNumber>110</serviceNumber>

</mapping>

<validation><unchecked/></validation>

<warnings>

<locationProfileUnrecognized profile=“martian-civic”/>

</warnings>

<via>lost:esgw.uber-110.de.example</via>

<via>lost:polizei.munchen.de.example</via>

</findServiceResponse>

NG - November 2006


Validation l.jpg
Validation

  • Determine if civic location is (partially) valid

  • Returns XML tag names of components:

    • validated and used for mapping

    • no attempt to validate (and not used)

      • e.g., house number

    • known to be invalid

  • Return (default) PSAP based on validated elements

  • May return list of guesses for correct addresses, if requested

NG - November 2006


Geo support l.jpg
Geo support

  • Which geo types should be supported?

    • Point (3D) 

    • Polygon?  may yield ambiguous answers

    • more complicated shapes?

  • Current proposal

    • always include 2D-point

    • may include other shapes

NG - November 2006


Lost architecture l.jpg
LoST architecture

VSP1

cluster serving VSP1

replicate

root information

cluster

serves VSP2

123 Broad Ave

Leonia

Bergen County

NJ US

root

nodes

NJ

US

NY

US

sip:[email protected]

search

referral

Bergen County

NJ US

Leonia

NJ US

NG - November 2006


Lost architecture26 l.jpg
LoST architecture

G

tree guide

G

G

G

broadcast (gossip)

T1: .us

T2: .de

G

resolver

T2

(.de)

seeker

313 Westview

Leonia, NJ US

T3

(.dk)

T1

(.us)

Leonia, NJ  sip:[email protected]

NG - November 2006


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion

  • Opportunity to fundamentally restructure emergency communications

    • higher reliability with large-scale disasters

    • lower cost

    • richer interaction

  • IETF ECRIT and SIP working group converging on core protocols

    • service URNs

    • SIP location conveyance

    • LoST

NG - November 2006


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