PROPOSED Annual Action Plan 2012-13 under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme on National Horticulture Mission Date : 21st March 2012. Venue : Room No.142, KrishiBhavan, New Delhi. STATE HORTICULTURE MISSION RAIPUR, CHHATTISGARH
Budget Sanction & Received Amount Under NHM (`. in Crore) * Expenditure up to 15th March, 2012.
Information of Land Area
Production trend of Horticulture • Area of fruit and vegetable is increased sharply from 2005-06 to 2007-08 but now it is static. • Production of fruits grew at the rate of 40% initially but later production has declining due to the fact that new orchards are in their gestation period and old orchards are becoming senile. • The productivity of all major horticulture crops except Okra, Coriander, Cashew-nut, Lime and Banana, is lower than its potential. • Although productivity is increasing but still far below than the expected yield potential. In Mango (-4.1 Mt./ha.), Litchi (-1.08 Mt./ha.), Custardapple (-3.99 Mt./ha.), Okra (-1.1 Mt./ha.), Ginger (-5.8 Mt./ha.) and Turmeric (-4.1 Mt./ha.) have shown decline in yield in last 5 years.
Focus Activities MIS Protected Cultivation Marketing PHM Capacity Building
Focus Crops – Area Expansion (Contd...)
Area Expansion • Around 10-20% of total allocation. • Objective – • As introduction of new variety or new species (crop) with proven results in a new area. • As replacement of useless and un-productive variety or a variety which has become susceptible to a particular disease or particular micro climate. • As introduction of rare and expensive variety - The cost of seeds/planting material farmers initially can not afford.
Requirement of Planting Material – 2012-13 • Mother plants of Cashew and Sitaphal has been newly planted in Govt. Nurseries . Grafted plants will be produced in near future in departmental nurseries. • Tissue culture Banana plants are procured from the 2 tissue culture labs established in the state .
Year wise Establishment of Model Nurseries & Increase in Plant Production Capacity • There are 117 departmental nurseries – 2.50 Crore plants per year.
REQUIREMENT & PROCUREMENT • In the last six years – average requirement was about 15 lakh fruit plants each year. • During last three years of NHM – most of the planting material was procured from CG State Seed and Agriculture Development Corporation Ltd. • Since last three years – about 80% of the planting material is produced in departmental nurseries. • But in case of hybrid seeds situation is dismal.
Strengthening of Nurseries • There are 117 departmental nurseries. • Most of the nurseries were very old and without appropriate infrastructure to produce quality planting material. • Since last three years 72 nurseries are upgraded and modernized to produce about 1 crore good quality plants per year. • This program ensures production of high quality grafted / other planting material and timely supply.
Strengthening of Nurseries • Infrastructure created in five years – 576 Shed net Houses (57,600 sq.mtr.) • Size 100 sq.mtr. each • Production 5,000 plants per batch • Total capacity created 115 lakh plants per year • 30-40 days cycle 24 Mist Chambers (3600 sq.mtr.) • Size 150 sq.mtr. each • Production 20,000 plants per batch • Total capacity created 20 lakh plants per year • 25-40 days cycle
Strengthening of Nurseries • Infrastructure created in five years – 24 Hardening Yards (6000 sq.mtr.) • Size 250 sq.mtr. each • Production 35,000 plants per batch • Total capacity created 30 lakh plants per year • 20-30 days cycle 39 Green Houses (3900 sq.mtr.) • All these protected structures created total 72,000 sq.mtr. area to produce about 1 crore high quality plants per year.
Issues in PHM • Lack of awareness among farmers in the field of PHM. Department is also not properly equipped with knowledge / resources to motivate farmers. • Capital intensive activity, it requires huge capital investment and technical know-how to establish entire cold-chain. • To make PHM successful activity about 300-400.00 crore rupees are required within 5 years. Neither the farmers nor the entrepreneurs of Chhattisgarh are financially capable of investing this huge capital amount. Therefore intervention from government is required. • Subsidy given for PHM and marketing is not attractive and lucrative. Provision of credit linked back ended subsidy in some activities, is major de-motivating factor for availing subsidy.
Issues in PHM • At present horticulture is a individual activity, there is no system of group farming or contract farming. Since entire cold chain management requires sufficient quantity of raw material to operate it efficiently and optimally. For bulk production, compact production cluster of particular produce is required. • For processing, round the year availability of raw material is essential to make it viable. To ensure availability of raw material during off-season safe storage of raw material in the glut season is required. • In marketing sector private entrepreneurs are not coming forward due to various reason like capital investment APMC Act, geographical remoteness and mind set and barnding.
Issues in PHM • APMC Act prohibits transaction outside the regulated mandis and does not allow direct marketing and direct procurement of agriculture produce from farmers fields. APMC implementation restricts the setting up of markets other than by the state government. This restricts the scope for corporate houses venturing into horticulture sector. • In absence of institutions like Grower Associations, Farmers Cooperative/Society, Common Enterprise Group, Contract Farming etc., marketing sector is unable to organize and strengthen. • Single gateway to regulated market would save time and improve efficiency.
Issues in PHM • Participation of private sector to contract farming and land leasing arrangements will allow accelerated technology transfer, capital flow and assured market for horticulture. • Food processing industry on part of private sector should be simplified and encouraged, therefore backward linkages of horticulture crop can be developed. • Most of the produce is directly procure from the field of big farmers by commission agents / middle man from outside the state. • Small farmers are depend on village merchants or on nearby rural markets to lift their surplus produce. Infrastructure development at all the tires of market is essential to organize small farmers having no bargaining power, quality incentive and share in final consumer price. • Vertical coordination of farmers with cooperatives / societies, contract farming and retail chain would facilitate them to deliver better output due to lower risk, better infrastructure, better price and created awareness to prevailing technology.
New Interventions Proposed • Create and develop micro irrigation infrastructure and popularization of micro irrigation system by establishing viable micro irrigation networks. • Bring more area under protected cultivation to fulfill the demand of vegetables in urban areas throughout the year. • Create appropriate infrastructures like pack house, cold storage, low energy cool chambers, ripening chambers and marketing facilities to minimize post harvest losses special package of 75-90% subsidy for PHM is proposed for the state. • Focus 2-3 crops will be selected in different regions of the state.
USP of the state in term of horticulture • Production of lean period vegetables and fruits like Banana – Oct planting & Nov/Dec harvesting (5000 Mt. surplus), Papaya – Feb planting & Nov/Dec harvesting (55,000 Mt.), Brinjal – Jun planting & Sep/Nov harvesting (8000 Mt.), Cauliflower - Jun planting & Sep/Nov harvesting (31,500 Mt.), Tomato- Jun planting & Sep/Nov harvesting (2,11,000 Mt.), Kharif Potato (2,27,00Mt.), Okra – Feb planting & Apr/May harvesting (3000 Mt.) and Chili – Jun planting & Oct/Nov harvesting (8000 Mt.) can be further strengthened and developed due to favorable climatic condition. • Surplus of fruits and vegetables like Cashew-nut (5000 Mt.), Mango (55,000 Mt.), Tomato (2,00,000 Mt.) and Chili (20,000 Mt.) can be used for processing, value addition and export.
Good network of department nurseries (117 with production capacity of 2.50 crore plants) that can be strengthened to produce quality planting material and reduce the demand supply gap (50% shortfall, especially due to TC Banana). • Good transport network to get access to in-land markets as-well-as exporting the products outside the state. • Convergence with MNREGS helps in effective implementation of NHM through providing protection, irrigation, maintenance etc., to the plantation crops. • Locational advantage of sharing borders with state like Orissa, M.P., A.P., Maharastra and Jharkhand that have huge market demand for fruits and vegetables, can be en-cashed as a pull factor for promotion of horticulture.
Strategy – Key issues • Area, production and productivity has increased but due to lack of PHM practices there is considerable post harvest losses (25-40%) and ultimately reduction in net return. • No facility for proper collection and storage of surplus produce at farm-gate level as-well-as off-farm level and absence of organize market network from rural market to terminal market. • Absence of forecasting facilities both in term of weather/ disease and price of products, it makes position of farmers vulnerable and increases the risk factor. • Lack of exposure as-well-as orientation of both the farmers and departmental staff towards modern horticulture practices.
Strategy – Key Focus Areas • Increasing productivity of horticulture crops. • Reduce / minimize post harvest losses at farm-gate level. • Strengthening and consolidating organic cultivation and achieving organic certification. • Developing network of cold storages and cold chain. • Developing market infrastructure across the state, identify target consumers through market segmentation. • Developing new institutions like Grower Associations or Farmers Cooperative / Society, Common Enterprise Groups and strengthening the old ones like existing SHGs / WUAs / Micro Credit Groups for production, processing and marketing of the product.
Strategy – Implementation • A. Increase in crop productivity – • Productivity is low and declining – • Considerable gap in yield potential and average yield. • This gap can be reduce through - • i.Creating assured irrigation facility – • Cost effective with in-line drip system. • Drip irrigation facility with multiple use of laterals as per crop option through crop planning. • Exploring new and existing sources of surface water in the village like pond, tanks etc. • De-silting and rejuvenation of existing canal systems of the state. • To achieve this goal apart from support from NHM and MIS institutional linkage will be developed with irrigation department and convergence with MNREGS.
ii.Ensuring Plant health to ensure effective protection of crops and efficient pest management through - • Setting up of disease forecasting units (8), bio-control labs (18) and plant health clinics (36) are required to reduce the risk of losses from pest and diseases. • Capacity building of farmers and staff in the field of IPM and aggressive campaigning in support of IPM . • To achieve the goal along with inputs from NHM, institutional linkages will be developed with agriculture universities for research inputs, private research institutes and laboratories and KVKs for dissemination of information.
iii. Ensuring Soil health for knowing status of macro & micro nutrient in the soil and their availability to the plant through - • Setting up of leaf-tissue analysis lab (5) to identify the status of micro nutrients in the plant to know the nutritional status of the crop. • Soil testing of all the beneficiaries and preparation of soil health card for individual farmer. This will be helpful to identify the status of micronutrient and their appropriate requirement in the soil, that will help in crop planning, nutritional management and introduction of new crops. (In Dhamtari & Janjgir-Champa district process is complete with the help of RKVY but in NHM districts there is no such provision). • To achieve the goal along with inputs from NHM, institutional linkages will be developed with soil testing labs of Agriculture department and University for soil testing and KVKs for dissemination of information.
B. Creating credit linkages - • The estimated loan distributed for horticulture crops is around `.150.38 crores by co-operative and other banks. Which is about 12.7% of total agricultural loan. • Per ha. loan distribution is around `.2520.00 for horticulture crops. Which comes about 2% (Spices and non-perennial fruits) and 5-6% (Fruits and Vegetables) of total production cost. Credit situation is very poor. • Most of the forms of the banks that needed to be filled up by the farmers are in English that creates a hindrance for dissemination of information. The selection criteria for getting the loan from the bank is also such that most of the farmers can not avail the facilities.
Grooming and sensitization of bank staff is needed. Co-ordination between bank staff and agriculture department is not very satisfactory. • It is required to take the landless, marginal and small farmers of the state in the fold of financial institutions like banks through creating awareness among the farmers about their entitlements, better coordination with banks and government agencies to reduce the cumbersome processing practices. To achieve the goal linkages will be developed with Lead Banks, nationalized banks, Rural Banks & Primary Agricultural Societies and SFAC . For creating infrastructure venture capital assistance from SFAC will be very helpful.
C. Proper Harvesting and Post Harvest Management of Crops – Shifting of focus from expansion of area to PHM, Marketing and Processing of the produce through- • The state has identified 96 potential production clusters and collection centers. The analysis has been made to identify the quantum of produces that needs to be stored. Based on the volume of produce further analysis is being made to design the storage facilities with requisite space. Based on the calculation establishment of 41 cold storages and 75 low cost onion storage is planned which are distributed across the state. • To give access to the farmers in different agro-climatic zones. • To reduce transportation cost and promote horticulture cultivation. • Among the horticulture crops in the state Tomato (60,000 Mt.), Mango (55,000 Mt.) and Cashew-nut (4000 Mt.) are identified as major target crops for further processing and value addition. The crops are identified based on their surplus production. • To make it economically viable for processing.
Based on the production and collection centers of horticulture products a market network is planned. • To cater to the need of the farmers right from the village level to the terminal market. Focus is being made to develop a network of primary rural markets with appropriate infrastructure (113), whole sale market (13), terminal market (1) across the states to give benefit to the farmers just after the farm-gate level. • Analysis is made based on the crop wise production volume (8.53 lakh Mt. vegetable and fruits) that can be marketed and designed. • Input support for marketing of the products by creating pre-cooling units (18), zero energy based cool chamber (3155), low energy cool chambers (44), mobile pre-cooling unit (1), ripening chamber (16) and pack houses (848) for increasing the price premium of the crops.
It is planned to develop institution such as Farmers Interest Groups (FIGs) at villages level and Farmers Producer Organization (FPOs). • Formation of FIGs with mobilizing 15-20 farmers in each FIGs. • Association of FIGs to form FPOs at appropriate federating point. For improved input and output market access and negotiating power. • Identification of local market aggregator at FPO level and State/National market aggregator. • Whole sale markets will be developed at the blocks/district level based on the potential of the crops. FIGs/farmers will get the opportunity to participate in the open auction to sell the products in the wholesale market. • To achieve this goal SFAC will act as coordinator and resource organization. To develop market setup linkage will be developed with CG Rajya Krishi Vipran Board (Mandi Borad) and financial assistance from NHM & RKVY will be taken.
Organizational Structure of FPO FPO 1 Local Market Aggregator Villages 15 - 20 Clusters / FIG 45-60 Farmers 600 - 1200
Establishment of network for disseminating real time information of product prices. A market information system will be developed. Farmers can access the real time information related to product prices through the e-kiosks to be set at the primary rural market / wholesale market / terminal market level where information will be uploaded about the prices of the major mandis of the state as well as other cities of the country. The farmers can also get registered in the mobile phone network through which they will be receiving information in their mobile phone periodically. • This will help farmers gaining better bargaining power, price forecasting and planning for marketing their products. To achieve this goal linkages will be developed with ORG NIELSEN. The firm has already started the base work for collection of data related to production, processing and marketing of horticulture products from all the districts of the state.
Developing Management Information System (MIS) right from point of production to collection, storage, processing and marketing at different levels using Geographic Information System (GIS). • To facilitate effective decision making both at the Mission Management Level and Farm Level. • To achieve this goal linkages will be developed with the firms having experience of developing and implementing such programs in natural resource based activities.