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presenter name presentation date
Presenter Name

Presentation Date

big ideas
Big Ideas

Section 1: Physical Features BIG IDEA Physical processes shape Earth’s surface. Over thousands of years, the movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates has shaped the landforms of Africa south of the Sahara. The region’s landscape includes large plateaus, rocky cliffs, and great, steep valleys.




A large camel can drink 25 gallons (95 L) of water in 10 minutes! It then stores the water in its bloodstream. Camels sweat very little, so the water they drink can last for weeks. Unlike a camel, a person in a desert can lose about two gallons of water a day by sweating! Humans must replace water frequently. Water is more plentiful in some regions of Africa south of the Sahara than in others. Read on to learn more about the physical features of this region.


Landforms of Africa South of the Sahara

Main Idea Africa south of the Sahara consists mainly of vast plateaus with few mountains and lowlands.

Geography and You Do you know what the landscape might look like if tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface pulled apart? Read to learn about the amazing landscape of Africa’s Great Rift Valley.


Four Regions

Africa south of the Sahara is more than

two and a half times larger than the United

States. As Figure 1 shows, this enormous

region is made up of four subregions,

or smaller regions: West Africa, Central

Africa, East Africa, and Southern Africa.

Africa south of the Sahara extends from

the Sahara in the north to Africa’s southern tip at the Cape of Good Hope.


Plateaus and Lowlands

Almost all of Africa south of the Sahara lies on a series of plateaus. The plateaus are formed from the solid rock that lies under most of the African continent. They rise like steps across the continent from west to east, as well as from the coasts into the interior. Many of these landforms rise from 1,000 to 2,000 feet (305 to 610 m) in western Africa to 7,000 feet (2,134 m) or more in the east. The plateaus give Africa south of the Sahara the highest overall elevation of any world region—more than 1,000 feet (305 m) above sea level.


In eastern and southern Africa, the edges of plateaus are often marked by escarpments. Escarpmentsare steep, jagged cliffs. Rivers that flow across plateaus drop suddenly at escarpments to become rushing rapids or tumbling waterfalls. Escarpments create barriers to trade by blocking ships from sailing between the interior and the sea.

Water Travel


Mountains Although Africa south of the Sahara generally has a high elevation, it has only a few long mountain ranges and towering summits. In the east are the Ethiopian Highlands, as well as volcanic mountain peaks, such as Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania is the highest peak in the region, rising to a height of 19,341 feet (5,895 m). The name Kilimanjarocomes from a phrase in the Swahili language that means “shining mountain.”

the great rift valley

Few features break the flatness of Africa’s large plateau areas. In eastern Africa, however, an amazing natural wonder—the Great Rift Valley—cuts through the landscape. The Great Rift Valley stretches about 4,000 miles (6,437 km) from Southwest Asia to southern Africa. A rift valley is a large break in the Earth’s surface formed by shifting tectonic plates. Millions of years ago, plate movements created deep cuts in the Earth’s crust where the Great Rift Valley now lies.

The Great Rift Valley
waterways of the region
Waterways of theRegion
  • Main Idea Waterways provide transportation, freshwater, and electricity for Africans living south of the Sahara.
  • Geography and You Do people travel on rivers or fish in lakes where you live? Read to find out about the ways Africans south of the Sahara use their rivers and lakes.
  • Most of the region’s large lakes lie in or near East Africa’s Great Rift Valley. One of these lakes, Lake Tanganyika (tan·guhn·YEE·kuh), is 420 miles (676 km) in length, making it the longest fresh water lake in the world. Lake Victoria lies in a low basin and is Africa’s largest lake.
doing your best work
Doing Your Best Work

Stop and look at Pictures


Africa south of the Sahara has four large river systems—the Nile, the Congo, the Niger, and the Zambezi (zam·BEE·zee). All of these rivers begin in the interior plateaus and make their way to the sea. In some places these rivers and their many branches are useful for freshwater and transportation, but geographical barriers limit their use in other areas.

The Zambezi River in southern Africa plunges over a cliff, creating Victoria Falls, a series of waterfalls that drop as much as 420 feet (128 m). The thick mist from the falls can be seen from miles away.

Many, like the Congo, flow through plateaus and carve deep gorges, or steep-sided valleys formed when rivers cut through the land.

mineral resources
Mineral Resources

Main Idea Africa south of the Sahara holds both a great variety and large quantities of mineral resources.

Geography and YouHave you ever seen diamond rings displayed in the window of a jewelry store? Read to discover where many of the world’s diamonds are found.

Blood Diamonds

  • Africa south of the Sahara is rich in energy resources. Plentiful petroleum deposits are found along the Atlantic coast from Nigeria to Angola. Landlocked Chad and Sudan also have large petroleum deposits. Oil has replaced agricultural products as the principal export in many of these countries.
other important resources
Other important resources
  • Other important resources include natural gas, which is also found in Central African countries along the Atlantic coast. Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Republic of South Africa have coal deposits. In addition, the region provides an important resource by means of its fast-flowing rivers—hydroelectric power.
gold and diamonds
Gold and Diamonds
  • Africa south of the Sahara has large deposits of precious materials. South Africa is believed to have half of the world’s gold. A gold deposit more than 300 miles (483 km) long is located in the Transvaal, a grassy plateau. South Africa is also rich in platinum, chromium, and manganese.
  • Many gemstones are mined in Africa south of the Sahara, including diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires. South Africa is a major diamond producer. Not all of the diamonds are used for jewelry, however. Because diamonds are such a hard substance, industrial diamonds are used to make drills, saws, and grinding tools.
climate regions
  • Fishponds? Puddles? No! The holes in the ground are actually evaporation ponds in Niger. The water in the ponds evaporates, leaving behind salt. The plentiful sunshine and the mainly dry climate of Niger speed up the evaporation process. Then people gather the salt and take it to market to sell. Read this section to learn about other climates in Africa and how they affect the people who live there

Main Idea Most of Africa south of the Sahara has warm or hot climates. Rainfall, however, varies greatly throughout the region. Geography and You Have you ever lived through a long period without much rain? Read to learn about how lack of rain affects the lives of people in parts of Africa south of the Sahara.


Africa south of the Sahara lies mainly in the Tropics. As a result, most of the region receives the direct rays of the sun year round, producing generally high temperatures. At higher elevations in this latitude, the climate is very different, however. For example, places with high elevation, such as mountains, often are cooler than low land plains at the same latitude.


The rain forests of Central and West Africa receive more than 80 inches (203 cm) of rain annually. By contrast, the Namib Desert in Southern Africa often gets less than 10 inches (25 cm) of rain per year. Some parts of Africa south of the Sahara have long droughts, or periods of time when there is no rain at all. Droughts can cause crop failures and widespread starvation.

tropical and dry climates
Tropical and DryClimates
  • Main Idea Most of Africa south of the Sahara is covered by tropical or dry climate zones.
  • Geography and You What kind of trees and plants grow best in your area? Read to find out how climate affects vegetation in Africa south of the Sahara.
  • Suppose you are standing at the Equator in Africa. Traveling either north or south, you would pass through the same pattern of climate zones: from tropical wet to tropical dry, then to steppe, and then desert.
tropical wet climate
Tropical Wet Climate
  • A tropical wet climate is found along the Equator in Central Africa and West Africa. Hot temperatures and plentiful rainfall in this zone support the growth of rain forests. Rain forests are dense stands of trees and other plants that receive high amounts of precipitation each year.

In a rain forest, vegetation grows at several different levels. The forest floor has mosses, ferns, and shrubs. Above these, palms and other trees grow about 60 feet (18 m) high. The tops of the highest trees form an umbrella-like covering called the canopy. The forest canopy is alive with tropical flowers, fruits, monkeys, parrots, snakes, and insects.


Rain forests support an enormousvariety of plant and animal life. Many tropical African countries rely on the sale of products from the rain forests, such as wood, for income. In addition, farmers clear the land for new farmland. They also depend on cut wood for fuel. All of these practices have led to deforestation, or the widespread clearing of forestland. The soil on the cleared lands, however, quickly becomes less fertile. Farmers are then forced to clear even more forestland to grow their crops.

  • To preserve rain forests, and boost their economies, some African countries are encouraging ecotourism. Ecotourismis touring a place without causing harm to the environment. Ecotourists thus help increase a region’s revenue while preserving the environment.

Tropical Dry Climate Farther from the Equator, rain forests give way to great stretches of tropical savanna, or grasslands with scattered woods. In this climate zone, temperatures remain hot all year, but rainfall amounts are much lower than in rain forest areas. Rains are heavy in the summer but light in the winter.

  • Continuing farther from the Equator, rainfall becomes more scarce, and savannas merge into drier steppes. In these areas, only about 8 to 15 inches (20 to 38 cm) of rain falls over the course of a few months each year. Vegetation includes different varieties of trees, thick shrubs, and grasses.
  • Steppe areas are threatened by desertification, the process that turns fertile land into land that is too dry to support life.
  • In very dry areas of Africa, deserts dominate the landscape. The largest are the Sahara in the north and the Kalahari and the Namib in the south. The Sahara has high temperatures and little rain. Instead of sandy dunes, it contains barren rock or stony plains covered by rocky gravel. Very little vegetation can live outside the oases and the highlands.
  • By contrast, the Kalahari in Southern Africa is covered by vast stretches of sand. It has high temperatures and little rainfall. When rains do fall, they are immediately absorbed by the sand, leaving the surface dry. Certain areas of the Kalahari have trees with long roots that reach the moisture in the deep sand.
  • The Namib, along the southwestern coast, is made up of rocks and dunes. This desert is arid, but temperatures tend to be cooler than in other African deserts because of breezes from the ocean. Fog that forms along the coast reaches the desert and provides moisture to many varieties of succulents. Succulentsare plants such as cacti with thick, fleshy leaves that can conserve moisture.
moderate climate regions
Moderate ClimateRegions
  • Main Idea Small areas of Africa south of the Sahara have moderate climate regions.
  • Geography and You Is it extremely hot or cold where you live, or is the climate more moderate? Read to learn about the areas of Africa south of the Sahara that have moderate climates.
  • moderate climates are found in coastal Southern Africa and the highlands of East Africa. These areas have comfortable temperatures and enough rainfall for farming.
  • Southeastern Africa has a humid subtropical climate of hot, wet summers and mild, wet winters. The farther south you go in Africa south of the Sahara, the farther you are from the Equator. As a result, temperatures become cooler.
  • Southwestern Africa has a Mediterranean climate. Here, winters are mild and wet, but the summers are warm and dry. Because the area is south of the Equator, seasons occur opposite of those in the United States.
  • Autumn occurs in April, a period when some rain may fall. However, most rain falls during the area’s winter months, which are June through August. Highland climates are found in areas of higher elevation in East Africa. Temperatures in the highlands are cooler than in surrounding areas because of the higher altitude. Snow often falls at high elevations, and vegetation is abundant at lower elevations.
history and governments
History andGovernments
  • Early African History
  • Main Idea African peoples built successful societies in the region beginning in ancient times.
  • Geography and You If you moved to a place far away, what would you bring to your new home? Read to learn how a large migration in ancient Africa spread a common culture throughout the continent.
early history
Early History
  • Early Africans lived as hunter-gatherers, or people who moved from place to place to hunt and gather food. Over time, people began to herd livestock and to farm. As northern Africa’s climate became drier and hotter, many people began migrating southward to more fertile areas. Around 3000 b.c., a migration that lasted several thousand years began. The migrants, a people known as the Bantu, shared a common language, culture, and technology. The Bantu migrated from modern-day
east and southern africa
East and Southern Africa
  • Some of Africa’s earliest kingdoms developed in East and southern Africa. Around 800 b.c., Kush developed along the Nile River in present-day Sudan. The people of Kush grew wealthy from trade and ironworking. Kush gold, ivory, and iron products were traded as far as Egypt and Southwest Asia. As Kush’s wealth increased, its rulers built temples and monuments like those of Egypt. During the a.d. 300s, however, Kush was defeated by the neighboring kingdom of Axum.
west africa s trading empires
West Africa’s Trading Empires
  • As Figure 1 shows, three trading empires emerged in West Africa from the a.d. 800s to the a.d. 1500s. Ghana (GAH·nuh), the earliest empire, controlled trade between the Sahara and West Africa’s rain forests. Over these routes, traders brought salt and cloth and exchanged them for gold and ivory. By taxing this trade, Ghana became very wealthy. In the late 1000s, North African invaders disrupted Ghana’s trade and the kingdom collapsed.
  • The empire of Mali replaced Ghana. Like Ghana, Mali grew wealthy from farming and from control of the gold and salt trade. Its most famous ruler, Mansa Musa, was a skilled administrator. During his rule, Timbuktu (tihm∙buhk∙TOO) became a center of trade, education, and Islamic culture.
european contact
European Contact
  • Main Idea After 1500, increased contact with Europeans led to great changes in Africa south of the Sahara.
  • Geography and You Has a new business, store, or factory moved into your community? What effect did it have? Read to find out about the effects of European commerce on Africa’s peoples.
  • In the 1400s and 1500s, Europeans began trading with African societies. Merchants from Portugal set up trading posts along Africa’s western coast, and traders from other countries soon followed. The arrival of Europeans in Africa south of the Sahara dramatically changed the region.
the slave trade
The Slave Trade
  • One of the many changes was the growth of the slave trade. Europeans did not introduce slavery or the slave trade to the African continent. For centuries, African rulers had enslaved and traded prisoners. Arab traders had brought enslaved Africans to the Islamic world since the a.d. 800s.
the slave trade1
The slave trade
  • The slave trade, however, greatly increased when Europeans began shipping Africans to the Americas. There, the Africans were forced to grow sugar and other cash crops. In Africa, African traders armed with European guns seized captives and delivered them to European trading posts on the coast. European traders then shipped the captured people across the Atlantic Ocean to be sold into slavery. Between about 1500 and the late 1800s, nearly 12 million Africans were sent to the Americas.
european rule
European Rule
  • European Rule By the 1800s, many Europeans had decided slavery and the slave trade should be stopped. When Britain declared the slave trade illegal, other countries followed its lead. This did not stop European interest in the region, particularly in Africa’s vast inland areas. Business leaders wanted Africa’s gold, timber, hides, and palm oil for their growing industries. Military leaders wanted to protect the coastal areas their countries already controlled. Missionaries wanted to convert Africans to Christianity

Beginning in the 1880s, European countries, such as Britain, France, and Germany, set out to claim Africa south of the Sahara. For economic profit and political advantage, they carved the region into colonies. In doing so, they ripped apart once-unified regions and threw together ethnic groups that had little in common. European armies with advanced weapons defeated Africans who resisted the takeover. By 1914, almost the entire region was under European control. The only territories free of European rule were Ethiopia and Liberia.

  • European rule greatly changed Africa south of the Sahara. Europeans built railroads and roads and introduced new feeds and fertilizers to improve farming. They provided some Africans with European style education and medical care. A chief goal of Europeans, however, was to export Africa’s raw materials to help their own economies. As a result, few industries were established in Africa, and the region remained largely undeveloped.
  • In addition, Africans faced many hardships. In their own lands, Africans had fewer rights and economic opportunities than the Europeans who lived there. Many Africans were forced to work in harsh conditions in mines or on large farms called plantations. Any opposition to European rule was severely punished.
  • Main Idea In the late 1900s, African countries won independence, but the new nations faced many challenges.
  • Geography and You Think about how you feel when you are not treated fairly. How do you react? Read on to learn how Africans sought better treatment and independence from European rulers.
  • In the early 1900s, Africans helped European powers fight in both World Wars. Many hoped they would be rewarded with independence. Instead, European countries further increased the size of their empires. They held on to their African colonies, causing many Africans to demand freedom from European rule. During the last half of the 1900s, their efforts were successful, and many African colonies became independent countries.
struggle for freedom
Struggle for Freedom
  • As the 1900s began, feelings of nationalism arose among European-educated Africans. Nationalism is a people’s desire to rule themselves and have their own independent country. Many Africans grew frustrated with their European rulers. Europeans wanted democracy for themselves but refused the same freedoms to colonial people overseas. Eventually, leaders came forth who convinced greater numbers of Africans to demand freedom.
  • After World War I, more Africans became politically active. They staged protests against discrimination, or unfair and unequal treatment of a group. European governments responded with force and arrests, but they also made some reforms. Africans, however, were not satisfied with limited steps and demanded complete independence.
independence movements
independence movements
  • During World War II, the European powers weakened because of the economic and military strains of the war. After the war, African protests against European rule grew. The weakened European countries did not have the resources to stop the independence movements.
after independence
After Independence
  • Freedom brought many political challenges to Africa south of the Sahara. Previously you learned that European countries in the late 1800s split Africa into colonies. In doing so, they divided once-united regions and combined ethnic and religious groups that did not get along. After independence many countries kept the old colonial borders. This led to violence, and many of the new African countries suffered from civil wars. Ethnic and religious conflicts divided people in such new countries as Nigeria, Sudan, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

During these civil wars, many people died or became refugees, people who flee to another country to escape mistreatment or disaster. Some of this unrest spilled over from one country to another. In some cases, United Nations (UN) peacekeeping troops were called in to restore and maintain peace.

  • South Africa and Apartheid In some countries, white-run governments denied basic rights to much larger non-European populations. In South Africa, white South Africans strengthened their rule through a system known as apartheid.
  • The policy of apartheid (uh·PAHR·tayt), or “apartness,” was carried out through laws that separated ethnic groups and limited the rights of black South Africans. For example, blacks had to live in separate areas, called “homelands,” that had few resources. Also, people of non-European background were not allowed to vote.
cultures and lifestyles
Cultures andLifestyles
  • The vibrant art of South Africa’s Ndebele people decorates their houses, clothing, and jewelry. Once powerful landowners, the Ndebele lost their land to white farmers in the late 1800s. The Ndebele painted their houses with colors and symbols to show their continued pride as a people. This tradition continues today. To learn more about the cultures of Africa south of the Sahara, read Section 2.
the people of africa south of the sahara
The People of Africa South of the Sahara

Main Idea Africa south of the Sahara has a rapidly growing population. Geography and You Has the population in your community increased or decreased in the last 10 years? Read to learn how cities in this region are growing larger


Today Africa south of the Sahara has about 750 million people. Population throughout the region has grown rapidly in recent decades. In fact, the rate of population growth in Africa south of the Sahara is among the highest in the world.

a growing population
A Growing Population
  • There are several reasons why the population in Africa south of the Sahara has grown. Better sanitation and medical care have lowered the death rates for infants and children. At the same time, the region has a high birthrate. Families in the region average five to seven children. Traditionally, African societies have seen large families as signs of wealth and prestige.
  • Rapid population growth has brought major challenges to Africa south of the Sahara. Overcrowding has led to poor living conditions in towns and cities. Governments find it difficult to provide shelter, water, and electricity for new city dwellers. In addition, much of Africa south of the Sahara has been unable to feed its people. Although about 70 percent of Africans work in agriculture, they cannot grow as much as they once could. Large areas of farmland in the region have been ruined by overuse, soil erosion, and serious droughts.
where africans live
Where Africans Live
  • The region’s growing population is not evenly distributed. This uneven distribution is a result of the climate and land features. Desert or steppe covers large portions of the region. In these areas, the land is generally too dry to support farming or raising livestock. Most of the region’s people are crowded in coastal areas of West Africa, the lakes region of East Africa, and along the eastern coast of southern Africa. These areas have plentiful rainfall, milder temperatures, and fertile soil that attract large populations. Most of the region’s farms, industries, and businesses are located in these areas.
health care
Health Care
  • Population growth in Africa south of the Sahara has been helped by many advances in health care. More health clinics, hospitals, and medical centers have opened. Also, drugs and medical supplies are more readily available. Still, the region’s death rate remains high compared to other world regions. People in many parts of Africa south of the Sahara suffer from malnutrition, or poor health due to not eating the right foods or enough food.
health care1
Health Care
  • Many rural Africans lack clean water to drink, as well as adequate sanitation, or removal of waste products. Terrible famines have killed many people, especially in East Africa and areas bordering the Sahara. Diseases such as malaria are widespread. Insects such as the mosquito and tsetse (SEHT∙see) fly transfer viruses to people and animals. Because of these problems, health care is a major issue in Africa south of the Sahara.
  • Despite the region’s rapid rise in population, one factor may drastically limit population growth in the future. Millions of Africans have been infected with the virus that causes AIDS. In some southern African countries, such as Botswana and South Africa, the disease has resulted in the decline of life expectancy. Life expectancy is the average number of years a group of people can expect to live. In the early 1990s the people of Botswana had a life expectancy of 60 years. This figure fell into the 30s in the early 2000s. The loss of large numbers of young adults to AIDS, as well as the children they would have had, means that the country’s population will soon be decreasing.
costly medical bills
costly medical bills
  • AIDS has had a destructive impact on Africa south of the Sahara in other ways. Individuals and governments find it difficult to pay the costly medical bills that are associated with treating AIDS patients. Also, the loss of skilled workers to AIDS weakens economies. The death of parents causes enormous hardships for countless families. The United Nations predicts that the number of African children orphaned by AIDS could reach 20 million by 2010.
culture in africa south of the sahara
Culture in Africa South of the Sahara

Main Idea Africa south of the Sahara is home to many different ethnic and language groups.

Geography and You Have you ever listened to jazz? Jazz developed from African music. Read to find out about culture and lifestyles in Africa south of the Sahara.

distinct cultures
distinct cultures
  • Africa south of the Sahara has a diverse population and distinct cultures. Africans belong to many different ethnic groups, speak thousands of different languages, and practice a variety of religions. African cultures also influence other cultures worldwide. In the past, enslaved Africans carried their culture and music to other parts of the world. As a result, the heritage of Africa is seen and heard today in the United States and other countries. For example, modern forms of music, such as jazz, rock and roll, and rap, have their roots in African music.
ethnic and language groups
Ethnic and Language Groups
  • Many Africans identify themselves as members of a particular ethnic group. They sometimes feel a stronger loyalty to their ethnic group than to a national government. In Africa, a person’s particular ethnic group is most commonly defined by the language he or she speaks. Between 2,000 and 3,000 different languages are spoken in Africa south of the Sahara.
history of european rule
history of European rule
  • Because of the region’s history of European rule, European languages are also spoken in the region. English and French are official languages in countries that were once colonies of Britain and France. For example, English is 1 of 11 official languages in South Africa, and French is the official language of Guinea. In some countries influenced by Islam and Arabic culture, such as Chad, Arabic is an official language.
  • Religion A variety of religions are practiced in Africa south of the Sahara. Most people belong to the Christian or Muslim faiths. Many Christian Africans live in coastal areas where Africans had greater contact with Europeans during the colonial period. Most Muslims in the region live in West Africa, where Islamic empires prospered in the 1400s and 1500s.
the arts
The Arts
  • Music and dance are vital elements in weddings, funerals, and religious ceremonies. For Africans, dance is an expression of a community’s life. The roles that people have in these dances often reflect their social status, or position in the community. For instance, many Africans have special ceremonies called rites of passage that mark particular stages of life, such as when young boys or girls reach adulthood. The young men and women often perform particular dances as part of these rites.
  • In addition to music and dance, Africans also have a storytelling tradition. Stories are told aloud and passed down from generation to generation. In West Africa, griots(GREE·ohs), or storytellers, preserve a group’s history by telling these stories.
daily life in africa south of the sahara
Daily Life in AfricaSouth of the Sahara
  • Because of high population growth and greater outside influences, everyday life in the region is undergoing rapid change. Despite this, many traditional features of African life remain.
rural life
Rural Life
  • About 70 percent of all Africans live in rural areas. The rural people depend on farming or livestock herding for their livelihood. Subsistence Farming, African farmers usually are able to grow only enough food to feed their families. After family needs are met, some farmers sell extra crops or animals at a local market for cash. They also might trade for other goods they need or want.
rural families
Rural families
  • live in villages near the land they farm. Most villages are made up of a cluster of houses and maybe a few shops, a medical clinic, or a schoolhouse. In the past, rural families often lived in a compound, or a group of houses surrounded by walls. Such walls are less common today. The homes of rural Africans are often made from dried mud with straw or palm leaves for roofs.
  • In Africa south of the Sahara, a person’s family ties are extremely important. In rural areas, most people live in extended families, or households made up of several generations. An extended family usually includes grandparents, parents, and children. In the cities, however, nuclear families are becoming more common. A nuclear family includes a husband, a wife, and their children.
african families
African families
  • traditionally have been organized into clans. A clan is a large group of people who are united by a common ancestor in the far past. Many Africans also belong to a particular lineage (LIH·nee·ihj), or a larger family group with close blood ties. All members of a lineage might have the same grandmother or grandfather, for instance. Some ethnic groups requirepeople to marry outside their own lineage.