Prepared by;. Ali ÖNAL Ayşegül GETİREN Ferhat KURT Nazlı İNCEER Uğur ASLAN. TECHNIQUES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING. TECHNIQUES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING. CONTENTS. Introduction Language Teaching Methodology Definition What is a technique? Technique???
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Prepared by; Ali ÖNAL Ayşegül GETİREN Ferhat KURT Nazlı İNCEER Uğur ASLAN TECHNIQUES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
CONTENTS • Introduction • Language Teaching Methodology • Definition • What is a technique? • Technique??? • Techniques in Approaches and Methods • Traditional Approaches and Methods • Alternative Approaches and Methods • Current Communicative Approaches • Conclusion
INTRODUCTION Language Teaching Methodology A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology is that which links theory and practice.
Theory Language Theory Learning Theory Design Theories are linked to various design features of language instruction such as syllabus, objectives, materials etc. Procedure Classroom techniques and practices.
Language Teaching Methodology Within methodology a distinction is often made between methods and approaches, in which methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices. So;
WHAT IS A TECHNIQUE?
DEFINITION Technique is the level at which classroom procedures are described.
A TECHNIQUE IS ; “ implementational - that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is a particular trick, a strategem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective. ” Anthony ( 1963 )
According to Anthony, a technique must be consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach, as well.
TECHNIQUES IN APPROACHES & METHODS
Traditional Approaches & Methods Grammar Translation Method Direct Method ( Natural Method ) Oral Approach Audiolingual Method Alternative Approaches & Methods Silent Way Total Physical Response Community Language Learning Suggestopedia Lexical Approach Competency-Based Language Teaching Current Communicative Approaches Communicative Language Teaching Natural Approach Cooperative Language Learning Content-Based Instruction Task-Based Language Teaching
TRADITIONAL APPROACHES AND METHODS
GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD ( GTM ) Techniques used in GTM: • Translation of a literary passage • Reading comprehension questions • Antonyms / synonyms • Cognates • Deductive application of rules • Fill in the blanks • Memorization • Composition
GTMTranslation of a literary passage Little Red Riding Hood Once upon a time there lived in a vilage a little girl. Her mother was excessively fond of her; and her grandmother doted on her still more. Grandmother had a little red riding hood made for her. It suited the girl so extremely well that everybody called her Little Red Riding Hood. Kırmızı Başlıklı Kız Bir zamanlar bir köyde küçük bir kız yaşarmış. Annesi ona oldukça düşkünmüş; büyükannesi ise daha çok düşkünmüş. Büyükannesi ona kırmızı başlıklı bir pelerin yaptırmış. Pelerin ona o kadar çok yakışmış ki herkes ona Kırmızı Başlıklı Kız dermiş.
GTMReading Comprehension Questions Do you want to keep up with the latest research and discoveries in science? There are many good websites that you can visit to make that easy. One great site is called Science News for Kids. This site reports science news covering a wide range of subjects. The articles are written with the interests and educational experience of younger readers in mind, but adults will find this site suitable for them as well. • The author believes that adults _______ a. won't understand a site for kids. b. will find Science News for Kids useful. c. don't like science as much as kids.
GTMAntonyms/Synonyms Write the synonyms of following, please. • Start /..….. • Think /…….. Write the antonyms of following, please. • Hot /……... • Long /……… • Big /………
GTMCognates True Cognate Theatre / tiyatro False Cognate Apartment / apartman
DIRECT METHOD ( DM ) Techniques used in DM: 1-Reading Aloud 2-Question & Answer 3-Self Correction 4-Conversation Practice 5-Fill In The Blanks Exercise 6-Dictation 7-Paragraph Writing
DMReading Aloud Autumn is the season that falls between summer and winter. There are many changes that begin in this fascinating season. Days become shorter. Leaves of trees turn from green to vibrant red, yellow and orange. Trees need sunlight to keep their leaves a lively green. Without sunlight leaves turn colors.
DMDictation The teacher reads a passage and asks the students to write what they have heard. AUTUMN Autumn is the season that falls between summer and winter. There are many changes that begin in this fascinating season. Days become shorter. Leaves of trees turn from green to vibrant red, yellow and orange. Trees need sunlight to keep their leaves a lively green. Without sunlight leaves turn colors.
ORAL APPROACH Techniquesused in Oral Approach: 1- New sentence patterns presented in situations 2- Drill-based practice 3- Guided repetition and substitution activities 4- Dictation, imitation and controlled oral-based reading and writing tasks
AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD ( ALM ) Techniques used in ALM: 1-Dialogue Memorization 2-Minimal Pairs 3-Complete The Dialogue 4-Drills ( repetition, inflection, replacement, restatement, completion, transposition, expansion, contraction, transformation, integration, rejoinder, restoration )
ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES AND METHODS
SILENT WAY Techniquesused in SilentWay : 1- Teachingpronunciationwith “ soundcolorcharts ” 2- CognitiveCodingwithColorRods 3- PeerCorrectiontoimprovecooperativemanner 4- Self CorrectionGestures 5- Teacher’s silence 6- StructuredFeedback 7- Fidel Charts 8- Word Charts
SILENT WAYTeaching pronunciation with “ sound color charts ” The teacher refers students to a color-coded wall chart depicting individual sounds in the target language - students use this to point out and build words with correct pronunciation.
SILENT WAYCognitive Coding with Color Rods Rods are used to trigger meaning, and to introduce or actively practice language. They can symbolize whatever words are being taught and be manipulated directly or abstractly to create sentences.
SILENT WAYPeer Correction to improve cooperative manner Students encouraged to help each other in a cooperative and not competitive spirit
SILENT WAYSelf Correction Gestures Teacher uses hands to indicate that something is incorrect or needs changing - eg. using fingers as words then touching the finger/word that is in need of correction.
SILENT WAYTeacher’s silence Teacher is generally silent, only giving help when it is absolutely necessary .
SILENT WAYStructured Feedback Students are invited to make observations about the day's lesson amd what they have learned.
SILENT WAYFidel Charts A chart that is color-coded according to the sound-color chart but includes the various English spellings so that they can be directly related to actual sounds
SILENT WAYWord Charts Words are depicted on charts, the sounds in each word corresponding in color to the Sound-Color Chart described above - students use this to build sentences.
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE( TPR ) Techniques used in TPR : 1- Commands 2- Role Reversal 3- Action Sequence
TPRCommands Use of commands is the major technique. Commands are given students to perform an action; actions make meaning clear.
TPRRole Reversal Students command their teacher and classmates to perform actions. Students speak after “the silent period”. Students should not be forced before they feel ready.
TPRAction Sequence The teacher may give three connected commands. e.g. => Teacher : Point to the door, walk to the door, and touch the door.”
COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING( CLL ) Techniques used in CLL : 1- Transcription 2- Reflection on Experience 3- Reflective Listening 4- Human Computer
CLLTranscription Students transcribe utterances and conversations they have recorded for practice and analysis of linguistic forms.
CLLReflection of Experience Students tell about their feelings about language learning experience.
CLLReflective Listening Students relax and listen to their own voices speaking the target language on the tape. The teacher may also read transcript while students are listening.
CLLHuman Computer The teacher repeats the correct form as many times as the students need. The teacher never corrects the student’s error, but only repeats the correct form.
SUGGESTOPEDIA Techniques used in Suggestopedia : 1- Positive Suggestion 2- Peripheral Learning 3- Visualization 4- Choose a New Identity 5- First and Second Concert
SUGGESTOPEDIAPositive Suggestion • Direct Suggestion : The teacher tells students that they are going to be succesful to create self – confidence. • Indirect Suggestion : This is provided by music and comfortable physical conditions of the classroom.
SUGGESTOPEDIAPeripheral Learning Posters, lists, charts, texts, paintings, and graphs are hung on the walls of the classroom. Students learn from these although their attentions are not directly on these materials.
SUGGESTOPEDIAVisualization Students are asked to close their eyes and concentrate on their breathing. Then the teacher describes a scene or an event in detail so the students think they are really there. When the scene is complete, the teacher asks students to slowly open their eyes and return to the present. This can be done just before students write a composition in order to activate their creativity.