Climate Change Education for Sustainable Agribusiness Development and Risk Management (CCESDAR)The case of Kenya Dorcas B. Otieno (PhD) OGW EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, KENYA OORGANIZATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION. (KOEE)
Overview • Introduction - Building Green societies • Role of TIVETs • Challenges facing TIVETs • What Next – CCESDAR as a solution • Understanding Green Economy and Growth • ESD and ECO-Schools strategies • Eco schools ESD Tool kits • Proposed Activities for CCESDAR • Expected Outcomes of CCESDAR • Expected Benefits
Introduction Cont.. • Climate change has posed many development challenges for Africa in sectors such as Agriculture, industry, Tourism and Forestry – with devastating effects such as floods, droughts, increase in disease incidence and food insecurity.( Kenya CC Startegy 2010) • Yet Climate change also presents great opportunities for Greening the Economy and thus creating Green Jobs in all sectors, thus addressing high levels of poverty and unemployment. • According to 2009 Census Report (Kenya) only 39% of about 11 million youth are absorbed in the job market, with 61% left jobless and living below the poverty line of less than one Dollar per day. • According to the National Economic Survey 2005/2006 statistics, up to 46% of the Kenyan population live below the absolute poverty line. • About 92% of these youth lack vocational or professional skills demanded by the economy, to which agriculture contributes 30% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), according to Ministry of Youth Report, 2011. • Investment in Greening various Sectors of the Economy holds the key to addressing poverty and unemployment among the youths. • Since the agricultural sector supports about 75% of Kenya’s population directly or indirectly (for food and income generation), greening it is a clear priority. • Transforming subsistence agriculture into productive agribusiness enterprises offers the best opportunity to addressing food security needs and unemployment issues in Africa.
ROLE OF TVETs IN GREENING ECONOMIES • The Technical, Industrial, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TIVET) institutions have the responsibility to train and empower Youth with knowledge and practical skills to enable them access employment opportunities both in the private and public sector, as well as encourage self-employment . • TVET institutions can provide skills needed for adaptive and innovative response to challenges posed by Climate Change, while at the same time creating green jobs. • Yet TIVET institutions are faced with a myriad of challenges that compromise their ability to play this important role. These challenges include the following:
CHALLENGES IN TIVET INSTITUTIONS • Inadequate capacity and quality of trainers in TIVET institutions, with existence of gaps between competencies and responsibilities of those mandated to undertake provision of training • Migration of professionally competent staff from the sector to other sectors and countries due to poor terms and conditions of service. • most TIVET institutions are concentrated within urban areas, where the population is high and poverty levels are lower than in the rural areas, with low agricultural potential. • The current infrastructure and training resources in most public TIVET institutions are not appropriate for high quality training: either the equipment is not available, in a state of disrepair or obsolete. Thus both trainers graduates lack adequate skills and experience due to limited exposure to technology in relevant industry. • Currently, training in TIVETs is not matched to industry needs. The current curriculum is outdated and irresponsive to current job market needs. • Low access of TIVET training opportunities to youth due to high costs not subsidized by the government. • Poor ICT levels in public TIVET institutions puts the youth off, • Poor Collaboration between TIVET institutions and industry. This limits absorption of graduates for employment.
WHAT NEXT? CCESDAR as a solution Mainstreaming of CCESDAR in TIVETSs could provide solutions to the aforementioned challenges . The process of greening existing jobs in Africa calls for a massive effort to revise existing TVET curricula, qualification standards, and programmes at all levels. CCESDAR would help achieve this end through the objectives: To; • Enhance capacity of TIVETs to produce youth with positive attitudes, knowledge and skills for CC Adaptation, Agribusiness Development and Risk management. • Contextualize CC Education for Sustainable Agribusiness Development and Risk management (CCESDAR) to address Kenya’s food security challenges • Develop Curriculum Support learning resources for use in TIVETs • Promote lobbying techniques to generate supportive political will for CCESDAR; • Promote institutional governance, links and Networks in TIVETs that can champion Greening the Economy.
UNDERSTANDING GREEN ECONOMY AND GROWTH • A Green Economyis one economy that works to achieve a balance gains made in the three pillars of the society, environment and economy. • Green growth on the other hand requires a restructuring of existing economic processes to lead to development of new green sectors. Innovation in Technology lead to Green jobs. • Green growth helps improve incomes, create jobs and minimize environmental impacts arising from economic development initiatives. • CCESDAR can provide a good framework for creation of Green jobs.
CCESDAR AS AN APPROACH • Adoption of CCESDAR Strategy provides a useful tool to address the aforementioned challenges of poverty, unemployment and food insecurity, using TIVETS as entry points. • CCESDAR is a process of achieving sustainable development, with a framework based on the following objectives; to: • Promote public understanding of effects of climate change and adaptation mechanisms through improved public awareness, • Improve the quality of education through re-orienting existing education curriculum to address real and current CC related challenges, through competence learning • Capacity Build educators, while promoting Research & Innovation • Provide opportunities for life-long learning and promote use of a variety of teaching approaches. In Kenya, the Eco-Schools Strategy has been employed to promote CC ESDAR with great success with regard to water, energy, health, agriculture, biodiversity, and waste; with cross cutting issues of climate change, poverty, gender, wealth creation for improved livelihoods for over a decade.
ECO-SCHOOLS STRATEGY • The Strategy aims at promoting sustainable community development using schools as entry points. Schools and communities have worked together to promote CCESDAR • In Kenya there are over 600 schools that have graduated as Eco-Schools and thousands of other schools trained waiting to graduate. • Some of these can serve as demonstration centers for CCESDAR in TVETs • Steps to Graduation employ ESD strategies: Formation of Eco-School Committee, Environmental Audit, School Environmental Policy, Eco-codes, Plan of Action, Micro-Projects, School-Community Cooperation, Curriculum Localization, Networking, Monitoring and Evaluation – Graduation !
IT Works - Eco-Schools programme • Several teachers have gone through extensive training for capacity building • Model Eco-schools become demonstration centers for communities to replicate; • The Eco-school program has influenced policy in Kenya, e.g. development of the “ESD Implementation Strategy”
Eco-Schools In Kenya • Public Awareness about environmental problems e.g. Climate Change increased • Micro projects implemented for income generation, poverty alleviation as well as addressing local environmental problems.
Agriculture • Innovations in Agriculture for increased production and value addition developed , e.g. active school gardens for food production using improved farming methods such as organic farming and mulching. • This helps increase food production, make savings for the schools and impart practical skills among learners for survival.
Eco-Schools in Kenya • Rain water harvesting promoted in schools – creates jobs for artisans, clean water for schools and communities. • Biogas technology promoted for green energy, creates jobs for artisans, produces slurry for organic farming and reduces GHG Emissions
Eco-Schools • Fostering crop (Horticulture) production and Agro forestry • Green jobs in nursery establishment and tree planting • Increased food security • Hands on learning through demonstration • Soil Protection and Conservation
TVT CCESDAR Proposed Activities • Fostering Crop and Livestock Agribusiness • Promotion of agribusiness through the establishment of incubators • Organizing Internships with incubators to enhance Action Learning and promote green jobs • Strengthen the Capacity of TIVET institutions and staff training • Develop Contextualized Action learning Curriculum & Curriculum Support Materials for the CCESDAR programme • Link TIVETs/Producer organizations with Industry, Business and Markets
EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF CCESDAR • Linkages between TIVETS and Industries, Business and Markets enhanced to make graduates relevant to the job market (Annex I). • Contextualized CCESDAR Curriculum & Curriculum Support learning resources developed (Annex II). • Enhanced capacity of TIVETS to produce youth with positive attitudes, knowledge and Competence skills for Agribusiness Development and Risk management (Annex III). • Incubators for crop and livestock Agribusiness and Risk management for experiential learning established (Annex IV and V). • Regional Centres of expertise in Crop and Livestock Agribusiness and Risk management established. • Stronger support by government and development partners for collaborative activities for the CCESDAR initiative. • Working strategies that make the agribusiness profession attractive established.
Expected Benefits • Wide range of Green jobs created for the youth. TIVET institutions become centers of excellence that help in dissemination of good practices to local community members in Agribusiness • Promotion of PPPs that help to link learners/trainees to industry and private sector players, promotes information and resource sharing – which is a key factor in development of a green economy. • Value addition on agricultural products widens their market and helps reduce-market related risks (Packaged honey) • Increased incomes from sale of improved agricultural products also helps change poor attitude towards agriculture as a sweaty job with little income.
CONCLUSION • Greening Africa’s Economy holds the key to Creation of Green Jobs as the solution to Africa’s challenges of poverty, food insecurity and unemployment among the youth. • Greening the Economy in Africa is not feasible without innovative approaches embedded in the ESD approaches to address Climate Change and impacts. • Innovations will transform obstacles arising from Climate change into Opportunities. • The Eco- Schools approach provides an excellent model to promote CCESDAR in Africa and promote Green Growth. • Youth empowerment and training is particularly important in creating a more skilled future generation. In training the youth it is important to equip them not only with useful skills but also practical skills. • TIVETs need to go green if they have to meet their role in empowering the youth.
WAY FORWARD - RECOMMENDATIONS • The Eco-Schools Program and Strategy should be replicated andadopted to foster implementation of CCESDAR in Africa. • TIVET institutions require both hardware and software transformation to practice sustainability. Curricula review to integrate CCESDAR is a matter of priority. • Governments need to take commitments to greening TIVETs to respond to challenges of unemployment and poverty among the youth. • Technical training to the youths should aim at imparting practical skills through Action Learning for self-reliance. • National and Regional networks should be established to enhance knowledge and experience sharing among key CCESDAR Practitioners.
Annex II: Contextualized Curriculum & Curriculum Support Material Development Model for TVET Tasks, Skills, Job analysis Research and Innovations Field Experience 1.Curriculum Analysis, Local Situation 2.Policy Analysis 9.Monitoring & Evaluation TVT STAKEHOLDERS 8.Regional Implementation 3.Contexualized curriculum Design 7.Pre-testing & piloting 4.Curriculum support Materials 6.Preparation of Curriculum Implementers 5.Syllabus Development
Annex III:TVTs Institutional Change Model Innovations Research , Materials Learning Methods Curriculum, ICT Platforms Transformation Mobilization AGRIBUSINESS & NATURAL RESOURCE Attitudes, Building Synergy, Retooling, Practice Resource: Financial, Technical, Environmental, Champion Partners Change Agents
Crop Breeding & Plant Physiology Crop Management Husbandry Farm Mechanization & Agricultural Enginnering Value Addition Marketing & ICT Storage Management Systems Market Market Annex IV: Crop Enterprise Model
Animal Genetics, Breeding & Selection Animal Husbandry & Livestock Nutrition Farm Engineering Mechanization & Value Addition Marketing & ICT Storage & Quality Control Systems Markeat Market Annex V:Livestock Enterprise Model