Statistics • •One in two sexually active young people will get an STD by the age of 25. • •Most young people with STDs don’t even know they have them. Getting tested is the only way to know for sure. • •STDs are really common -- every year there are more than 19 million new cases in the U.S. • •Left untreated, some STDs can cause infertility or increase your risk of getting cancer • •More than 50 percent of sexually active people will get HPV at some point during their lives.
Bacterial vs. Viral • Bacterial can be cured • Viral can not be cured, • but symptoms can be alleviated
Bacterial • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea-"the clap" • Syphilis • Trichomoniasis
Viral • Human Papillomavirus-HPV • Hepatitis • HIV/AIDS • Herpes
What to know? • STD • Symptoms, Complications, how it is spread, treatment
Chlamydia • A common sexually transmitted disease (STD) • Often has no symptoms • Easily treated • Easily spread with or without symptoms. • Condoms offer good protection • About 3 million Americans become infected each year. • Can infect the penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, eye, or throat.
Symptoms-Usually None • abdominal pain • abnormal vaginal discharge • bleeding between menstrual periods • low-grade fever • painful intercourse • pain or a burning feeling while urinating • swelling inside the vagina or around the anus • the urge to urinate more than usual • vaginal bleeding after intercourse • pain or a burning feeling while urinating • milky discharge from the penis • swollen or tender testicles • swelling around the anus Women-3 out of 4 no symptoms Men-Half no symptoms
Complications • Infertility, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Potential fatal ectopic pregnancy. • Woman can pass to baby (can cause pneumonia and pink eye in babies) • Epididymitis, if not treated can lead to sterility. • Rarely, it leads to a condition called reactive arthritis. Women Men
How is it spread? • Vaginal and Anal Intercourse • Rarely during oral sex. • Can be spread from mother to fetus
Treatment • Antibiotics- A single dose of azithromycin or a week of doxycycline (twice daily) • Abstain from intercourse until treated. • Get retested 3 months later. • Take all the prescribed medicine. Even if the symptoms go away, the infection may still be in your body until treatment is complete. • Make sure your partner(s) is/are treated at the same time so you don't give gonorrhea to each other again. • Do not share your medicine with anyone. • Consult your health care provider if you have symptoms after treatment.
Gonorrhea • A common sexually transmitted disease (STD) • Often has no symptoms • Easily treated • Easily spread with or without symptoms • Condoms offer good protection • Infect the penis, vagina, cervix, anus, urethra, or throat. Sometimes it is called "the clap" or "the drip.“ • It affects about 600,000 women and men in the United States every year.
Symptoms-Often No Symptoms • abdominal pain • bleeding between menstrual periods • fever • menstrual irregularities • painful intercourse • painful urination • swelling or tenderness of the vulva • the urge to urinate more than usual • throwing up • discharge from the penis • pain or burning feeling while urinating • more frequent urination than usual Women-4 out of 5 no symptoms Men-1 out of 10 no symptoms
Complications • Premature pregnancy or still birth. • Can be passed from mother to fetus. • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • Arthritis/Skin Sores • Epididymitis-become infertile • Fever, swelling and pain in scrotum • Arthritis/ Skin Sores Women Men
How is it Spread? • Vaginal and anal intercourse • Oral sex • Can be passed from mother to fetus
Treatment • Antibiotics • Although medication will stop the infection, it will not repair any permanent damage done by the disease • Take all the prescribed medicine. Even if the symptoms go away, the infection may still be in your body until treatment is complete. • Make sure your partner(s) is/are treated at the same time so you don't give gonorrhea to each other again. • Do not share your medicine with anyone. • Consult your health care provider if you have symptoms after treatment.
Syphilis-Often no Symptoms • A sexually transmitted disease (STD) • Often has no symptoms • Treatment available in the early stages • Condoms offer good protection • It can infect the vagina, anus, urethra, or penis, as well as the lips and mouth. • 36,000 Americans every year.
Symptoms Primary Stage — A painless sore or open, wet ulcer, which is called a chancre, appears. You may have just one chancre or a few. Chancres usually appear about three weeks after infection, but may take up to 90 days. Without treatment, they last 3–6 weeks. Chancres can appear on the genitals, in the vagina, on the cervix, lips, mouth, breasts, or anus. Swollen glands may also occur during the primary phase.
Symptoms • Secondary Stage — Other symptoms often appear 3–6 weeks after the sores appear. These syphilis symptoms may come and go for up to two years. They include body rashes that last 2–6 weeks — often on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. There are many other symptoms, including mild fever, fatigue, sore throat, hair loss, weight loss, swollen glands, headache, and muscle pains.
Complications • Late Stage- Symptoms can appear 10-30 years later. Difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia. In the late stages of syphilis, the disease damages the internal organs, including the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints. This damage can result in death. • Women can pass infection to baby-can cause cataracts, deafness, or seizures
How is it Spread? • vaginal and anal intercourse • oral sex • kissing (much less commonly) • Can be spread from mother to fetus
Treatment • Prescribed Medication • Avoid Sexual intercourse during treatment
Trichomoniasis • Often called "trich" • A sexually transmitted infection • Often has no symptoms • Easily treated • Condoms reduce your risk of infection • 8 million Americans infected each year
Symptoms-Often No Symptoms • blood spotting in discharge • itching in and around the vagina • swelling in the groin • the urge to urinate frequently — often with pain and burning • discharge from the urethra • the urge to urinate frequently — often with pain and burning Women Men
Complications • Can last for years without treatment. • Can be passed from mother to baby.
How is it Spread? • Vaginal Intercourse
Treatment • Antibiotics • 1 in 5 people will contract again within 3 months.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • A very common infection • A few types can lead to cervical and other cancers • Treatment available for cell changes in the cervix caused by HPV • Spread easily by skin-to-skin contact • There are ways to reduce your risk of getting HPV • HPV is so common that about half of all men and more than 3 out of 4 women have HPV at some point in their lives
HPV • Most HPV infections have no harmful effect at all. • Some types of HPV may cause genital warts.These are called low-risk types of HPV. • Some types of HPV may cause cell changes that sometimes lead to cervical cancer and certain other genital and throat cancers. These are called high-risk types • Most HPV infections go away within 8 to 13 months, some will not. HPV infections that do not go away can "hide" in the body for years and not be detected
Symptoms • No symptoms in men or women. • Women go for PAP test • Men there is no test, but HPV almost always goes away.
How is it Spread? • Skin to Skin contact • Usually, vaginal or anal intercourse. • Oral sex
Treatment • No Treatment • HPV Vaccine
Hepatitis B • A kind of liver infection • Often has no symptoms • No cure, but the infection often goes away on its own • Many states require the hepatitis B vaccine for school children • Can be spread during sex play • Easily spread with or without symptoms • Condoms offer good protection for people not vaccinated • About 46,000 Americans each year.
Other Hepatitis • Hepatitis A (HAV). A person can get hepatitis A from infected fecal matter that gets into the mouth — from contaminated food, for example. This infection usually spreads when people do not wash their hands after using the bathroom. HAV also can pass from one sex partner to another. Hepatitis A is not a long-term infection. A person can only get the infection once. There is also a vaccine for HAV. • Hepatitis C (HCV). Hepatitis C is passed through direct contact with an infected person's blood. It can spread during sex, but this is very rare. HCV is more likely to be spread during sex if either of the sex partners also has another sexually transmitted infection. For most people, HCV is a long-term infection and causes chronic liver disease.
Symptoms Often no symptomsWhen symptoms occur: can be 6 weeks-6 months after infection. • extreme tiredness • tenderness and pain in the lower abdomen • loss of appetite • nausea, vomiting • pain in the joints • headache • fever • hives • more severe abdominal pain • dark urine • pale-colored bowel movements • jaundice — yellowing of the skin and eyes Early Symptoms Late Symptoms
How is it Spread? • Hepatitis B is very contagious. It is passed through an exchange of semen, vaginal fluids, blood, and urine by • having sexual intercourse without a latex or female condom • having unprotected oral sex • sharing needles and other "works" to inject drugs • sharing personal hygiene utensils such as toothbrushes and razors • accidental pricks with contaminated needles in the course of health care • HBV can also be passed from mother to infant during birth.
Treatment • No Cure • 9 out of 10 will recover completely in 4-8 weeks • 1 out of 20 who get HBV will be carrier • 1 in 5 die from the infection.
Herpes • A very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) • Can affect the mouth (oral herpes) or genitals (genital herpes) • Easily spread with or without symptoms • Treatment available for herpes symptoms • There are ways to reduce your risk of getting herpes • Up to 8 out of 10 American adults have oral herpes. And about 1 out of 4 American adults have genital herpes.
Symptoms-Flare ups every few weeks or months. Last for 1-2 weeks • Cold Sores • Inside mouth, Lips • Flare up every few weeks, months, years • Harmless • blisters • burning feelings if urine flows over sores • inability to urinate if severe swelling of sores blocks the urethra • itching • open sores • pain in the infected area Oral Genital
How is it Spread? • Touching, kissing • Vaginal or anal intercourse • Oral sex • Most contagious when sores are open • But can be spread from someone with no symptoms. • Mother rarely passed to fetus, unless she is newly infected.
Treatment • No cure • Medications to help manage infection
HIV/AIDS • HIV is the infection that causes AIDS. • HIV has few or no symptoms for up to 10 years or more before symptoms of AIDS develop. • There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but treatment is available. • HIV can be spread during sex play. • Latex and female condoms offer very good protection against HIV. • 980,000 cases reported, 40,000 each year
Symptoms • Swollen glands • Fever • Headache • Fatigue • Muscles aches • thrush — a thick, whitish coating of the tongue or mouth that is caused by a yeast infection and sometimes accompanied by a sore throat • severe or recurring vaginal yeast infections • chronic pelvic inflammatory disease • severe and frequent infections • periods of extreme and unexplained tiredness that may be combined with headaches, lightheadedness, and/or dizziness • quick loss of more than 10 pounds of weight that is not due to increased physical exercise or dieting • bruising more easily than normal • long periods of frequent diarrhea • frequent fevers and/or night sweats • swelling or hardening of glands located in the throat, armpit, or groin • periods of persistent, deep, dry coughing • increasing shortness of breath • the appearance of discolored or purplish growths on the skin or inside the mouth • unexplained bleeding from growths on the skin, from the mouth, nose, anus, or vagina, or from any opening in the body • frequent or unusual skin rashes • severe numbness or pain in the hands or feet, the loss of muscle control and reflex, paralysis, or loss of muscular strength • confusion, personality change, or decreased mental abilities HIV-usually no symptoms AIDS
How is it Spread? • Transmitted in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk • having vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom with someone who has HIV/AIDS • sharing needles or syringes with someone who has HIV/AIDS • being deeply punctured with a needle or surgical instrument contaminated with HIV • getting HIV-infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions into open wounds or sores
Treatment • No Cure • Medication to strengthen immune system