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European Runway Safety Survey. P. Wilson EUROCONTROL. The Problem of Runway Incursions in Europe. EUROCONTROL. The main objectives of EUROCONTROL are to harmonise and integrate Air Navigation Services in Europe, aiming at the creation of a European Air Traffic Management System,

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european runway safety survey

European Runway SafetySurvey

P. Wilson

EUROCONTROL

slide3

EUROCONTROL

The main objectives of EUROCONTROL are to harmonise and integrate

Air Navigation Services in Europe, aiming at the creation of a European Air Traffic Management System,

to achieve the safe, orderly, expeditious and

economic flow of air traffic throughout Europe.

slide4

2000

2020

Traffic Growth

  • Traffic : increased threefold over last 25 years.
  • Baseline forecasts : steady growth of 4% per annum.
  • Traffic demand : expected to double over next 20 years.

2000

1974

DIVISION DED 4 - 4/11/97

slide5

ECAC States (38)

Albania

Armenia

Austria

Belgium

Bulgaria

Croatia

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Moldova

Monaco

The Netherlands

The former Yugoslav -Republic of Macedonia

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Slovak Republic

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

United Kingdom

investigated runway incursions
Investigated Runway Incursions

Data collected through:

  • MANDATORY REPORTING SCHEME

and

  • INTERVIEWSof 12 European Airports
risk of runway incursions
Risk of Runway Incursions

100

Number Of Runway IncursionsPer 1,000,000 Operations

10

1

Rate of Runway Incursions in 9 different European airports

severity distribution of reported runway incursions
Severity distribution of reported Runway Incursions

CATEGORY A

CATEGORY D

Significant Potential

Little or no Potential

5%

31%

30%

Good Potential

CATEGORY B

34%

Fair Potential

CATEGORY C

Source: Mandatory Reporting Scheme

occurrence types related to runway operations
Occurrence Types Related to Runway Operations

Pilot Deviations

Operational Errors

44%

30%

26%

Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations

Source: Mandatory Reporting Scheme

occurrence types related to runway operations1
Occurrence Types Related to Runway Operations

60%

3 Airports feedback

50%

Mandatory Scheme

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Pilot Deviations

Operational Errors

Vehicle/Pedestrian

Deviations

pilots and atco perceptions
Pilots and ATCO perceptions

Outcomes of the Questionnaire...

risk perception i
Risk Perception (I)

Within the last year, do you think the number of Runway Incursion has...

risk perception ii
Risk Perception (II)

How would you rank “Runway Incursion” among other runway safety concerns ...

slide15

Pilots

ATCOs

What in your opinion was a contributing cause ? (I)

slide16

Pilots

ATCOs

What in your opinion was a contributing cause ? (II)

to summarise
To summarise ...
  • AVAILABILITY of data: few available data at the time of the survey (no reporting scheme or reluctance to share information?)
  • Approach forANALYSIS: difficult to combine data (no harmonised approach)
  • Underlying CAUSAL FACTORS: difficult to understand why Runway Incursion occurs
task force to develop recommendations
Task Force to develop recommendations

GASR - EUROCONTROL - ICAO - JAA - IATA -

IFATCA - IFALPA - ACI - IAOPA - AEA - ERA - ECA

  • Not locked into cycle of continuous data collection
  • Time scales short
    • short term - End Jan 2003
    • medium term - Jan 2004
    • long term - Jan 2005
  • Majority of recommendations complete by Jan 2003
recommendations
RECOMMENDATIONS

GENERAL AREAS

1 Awareness

2 Data Collection

3 Communications

4 Procedures and working methods (PILOT/ATC/Driver

5 Annex 14

6 Airport Aeronautical Information

7 New Technologies

8 Human Factors

9 Regulatory

slide20
1 Awareness
  • Establish a local joint team (ATC/Aircrew/Airport)
  • Achieve Standardisation through ICAO Provisions
  • Establish a Runway Safety Programme
  • General Awareness campaign by Task Force
  • Dedicated local awareness campaigns
  • Implement a Safety Management System (SMS)
  • Introduce Runway Safety into SMS to identify risks & mitigation
  • Promotion of Recommendations
slide21
2 Data Collection and Lesson learning
  • Improve data collection - standard reporting/investigation
  • Standard agreed definitions
  • All data to be collected in data base for trend analysis
  • Non punitive reporting systems
  • Local Runway Safety Survey to be conducted (as per SMS) to identify hazards
  • Disseminate disidentified details of incidents/occurrence's both European wide/locally
slide22
3 Communications
  • Confirm use of standard ICAO phraseology
  • Explicit runway crossing clearances
  • Read back
  • Runway crossing on single frequency
  • Clarify rules associated with conditional clearance
  • R/T, language and phraseology proficiency
  • All communications associated with runway in English
  • Driver training programmes introduced
slide23
4 Procedures and Working Methods
  • Pilot procedures - best practice
  • Standard taxi routes - reduce workload near runway
  • Use of line up and wait
  • Inspection opposite direction
  • Use of blocker strips
  • Use of Capacity Enhancing Procedures
  • Access of vehicles to manoeuvring area
  • Cross runways at 90° when possible
slide24
5 Annex 14
  • Confirm implementation of Annex 14 provisions - markings/signage/lighting etc.
  • Identify needs to enhance ground markings
  • Implementation of Standard ICAO taxiway naming conventions
slide25
6 Provision of Airport Information
  • Management Process for charts/publications for accuracy
  • Establish feedback mechanism with users to detect errors
  • Improve ergonomics of maps
  • AIS standardisation
slide26
7 New Technologies
  • Consider new technologies as prevention or safety net
  • Moving ways/graphical displays in cockpits - situational awareness
  • Assessment of value of automated conflict detection systems
slide27
8 Human Factors
  • Understand HF issues contributing to Runway Safety Events
  • TRM /CRM
  • Use of multiple capacity enhancing procedures.
slide28
9 Regulatory
  • Licensing of Aerodromes - degree of compliance
  • Assessment of SMS systems
slide29
Occurrences
  • Be200 Expect Crossing Clearance
  • B747 Conditional/read back
  • HS121 Cross runway in use (23)
  • B747 Line Up
slide30
Summary
  • All States cultures/language/ATM Systems
  • Recommendations cover most areas
  • Result of Joint action - First in Europe
  • European action could stop the majority of events leading to Runway Incursion - however we are aware that to remove potential hazards completely will be very difficult