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Jennifer Lotz Hubble Science Briefing Jan. 16, 2014 PowerPoint Presentation
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Jennifer Lotz Hubble Science Briefing Jan. 16, 2014

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Jennifer Lotz Hubble Science Briefing Jan. 16, 2014

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  1. Exploring the Depths of the Universe Jennifer Lotz Hubble Science Briefing Jan. 16, 2014

  2. Hubble is now observing galaxies97% of the way back to the Big Bang,during the first 500 million years 2

  3. Challenge: Can we peer deeper into the Universe than the Hubble Ultra Deep Field before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? 3

  4. Extragalactic Astronomy 101 • the speed of light is finite ⇒ distance = look-back time • the universe is expanding ⇒ distance = velocity • objects moving away from us look redder ⇒ redshift = distance = look-back time 4

  5. 1. distance = time the Sun 8 minutes Andromeda 3 million years Earth 13 billion years distant galaxy 13.7 billion years We see distant objects as they were in the past because their light takes a long time to reach us echo of the Big Bang 5

  6. 2. distance = velocity • the universe is expanding – objects farther away are moving away faster Velocity away from our galaxy  Distance from our galaxy  Hubble 1929 6

  7. 3. velocity = redshiftredshift = distance = time velocity The light from objects moving away from us is shifted redward. N. Wright / www.astro.ucla.edu 7

  8. distant galaxy Earth Galaxy redshifts are primarily due toexpansion of space, not Doppler shift Emitted blue light… Expanding universe stretches light to longer wavelengths Redshift z = stretch factor minus one …stretched to green… …then red (or even infrared) when observed ESO animation: http://www.eso.org/public/videos/redshiftv/ 8

  9. (4. Astronomer’s unit of brightness) Astronomers measure brightness in “magnitudes” Larger magnitudes are fainter (backwards!) Magnitude = -2.5 log10(brightness) Faintest star the human eye can see is 6th magnitude Hubble Ultra Deep Field reaches 30th magnitude = a factor of 4 billion times fainter than what we can see with naked eye Frontier Fields reaches ~10x fainter than Ultra Deep Field = 40 billion times fainter than human eye can see. Fainter  Figure from http://sci.esa.int/education/35616-stellar-distances/ 9

  10. visible light 10

  11. when the universe was young.. blue = 0.0 K green = 2.7 K red = 4.0 K 380,000 years after the Big Bang microwaves NASA/WMAP Science team 11

  12. When the universe was young... blue = 2.7249 K green = 2.7250 K red = 2.7251 K 380,000 years after the Big Bang NASA/WMAP Science team 12

  13. from the Big Bang to the Milky Way 13

  14. The Hubble Deep Field - 1995 14

  15. The Hubble Deep Field South- 1998 15

  16. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field -2004 new camera on Hubble = new deep field 16

  17. Science Highlights from Deep Fields • detection of faint galaxies at look-back times < 1 billion years after the Big Bang  “cosmic star-formation history” peaked ~ 10 billion years ago • Galaxies grew in size and mass over this time, and changed their shapes from irregular to smooth • Most distant supernovae used to measure distance, confirm accelerating universe • Accreting supermassive black holes are found in galaxies at look-back times as early as 10-12 billion years ago. 17

  18. How far away are galaxies? Hydrogen atom excitation levels Hydrogen atoms absorbs ultraviolet light from distant galaxies; this “Lyman break” is used to estimate their redshift. 18

  19. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field -2009/2012 new camera on Hubble = new deep field 19

  20. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field -2009/2012 deep infrared images needed to detect the highest redshift galaxies Cosmic star formation density  Redshift/time since Big Bang  20

  21. most distant galaxy candidate 21 NASA/HST the Ultra Deep Field

  22. Challenge: Can we peer deeper into the Universe than the Hubble Ultra Deep Field before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? posed to the Hubble Deep Fields Initiative science working group to develop an ambitious new “community” deep fields program HUDF ACS (optical) = 416 orbits WFC3 (IR) = 163 orbits =579 orbits of HST 22

  23. Gravitational lensing in action Credit: Ann Feild (STScI) 23

  24. Gravitational Lensing 24

  25. Wine Glass Lensing Phil Marshall 25

  26. 26

  27. Challenge: Can we peer deeper into the Universe than the Hubble Ultra Deep Field before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? 27

  28. Answer: Use Einstein’s theory of general relativity - “gravitational lensing” - to go intrinsically deeper than the Ultra Deep Field. Gravitational lensing magnifies and stretches light from distant galaxies behind massive clusters, making them appear brighter and larger. Six very massive clusters of galaxies chosen as the best “zoom lenses”, with input from community. The Frontier Fields are being observed by NASA’s Great Observatories - Hubble, Spitzer, and Chandra - over the next 3 years. 28

  29. Frontier Fields will also observe 6 fields in parallel with the clusters, the second deepest observations of ‘blank’ fields ever obtained. Simultaneous images are taken with Hubble’s infrared camera WFC3/IR and the optical camera ACS; cameras will swap positions ~6 months later. 29

  30. Deep observations of the Frontier Fields will: • probe galaxies 10-20x intrinsically fainter than any seen before, particularly those in the first billion years of the Universe • study the early formation histories of galaxies intrinsically faint enough to be the early progenitors of the Milky Way • study internal properties of highly-magnified galaxies at high spatial resolutions • provide a statistical picture of galaxy formation at early times 30

  31. Deep observations of the Frontier Fields will: + map out dark matter, substructure in clusters + use 100s of multiple images as probe of distance, DE + search for (lensed) SN, transients in distant universe + deep and high-spatial resolution studies of z~1-4 galaxies, (UV escape fraction, sub-kpc structures and star-formation) + search for trans-Neptunian objects in solar system + give parallaxes of Milky Way stars + ??? 31

  32. Spitzer Frontier Fields Infrared Spitzer Space Telescope will look at Frontier Fields in 2 filters redder than Hubble can see to depths of ~26.5 magnitude Spitzer crucial for confirming the distant galaxies, measuring their total stellar masses http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/data/SPITZER/Frontier/ 32

  33. Chandra Frontier Fields MACS0717.5+3745 C. Jones-Forman MACS0416.1-2403 S. Murray X-ray detect hot cluster gas  cluster mass and background accreting black holes archival Chandra data available for all of Frontier Fields; Chandra FOV encompasses both cluster + parallel fields new observations began this fall 33

  34. HST Frontier Fields: Clusters Avoid dusty, bright regions of sky; visible from south (ALMA) and north (Mauna Kea) 34

  35. HST Frontier Fields MACSJ0416.1-2403 MACSJ0717.5+3745 Abell 2744 Abell370 Abell S1063 MACSJ1149.5+2223. Hubble will observe 2 cluster per year, over 3 years 140 orbits per cluster 35

  36. Abell 2744 - HST Epoch 1 completed November 2013 Cluster Parallel ‘Blank’ Field 36

  37. Abell 2744 - HST Epoch 1 completed November 2013 Cluster Parallel ‘Blank’ Field 37

  38. Abell 2744 Parallel ‘Blank’ Field 38

  39. Abell 2744 Cluster 39

  40. Abell 2744 Cluster 40

  41. Abell 2744 Cluster 41

  42. Abell 2744 Cluster a model of the cluster’s ‘optics’ gives us the magnification power 42 model credit: J. Richard, CATS team

  43. background galaxies are magnified by factors up to ~10-20, providing the deepest yet view of the universe 43

  44. lensed galaxies background galaxies are magnified by factors up to ~10-20, providing the deepest yet view of the universe 44

  45. Abell 2744 + parallels are very very deep Fainter  Fainter  Number of galaxies Number of galaxies Optical ACS images (blue, green, yellow) reach ~29th magnitude (dashed line) Infrared WFC3/IR images (orange, pink, red, dark-red) >~28.7 magnitude (observed magnitudes, not intrinsic magnitudes) 45

  46. Deepest view yet into the distant universe: Observed Fainter  Intrinsically Fainter  HUDF12 HUDF12 Number of galaxies Take observed fluxes x lensing magnifications (average ~1.8x, max ~80x) ⇒ intrinsically faintest Frontier Fields galaxies ~2.5 magnitudes (10x) fainter than Ultra Deep Field (blue dashed line) 46

  47. Exploring the Depths of the Universe • The Frontier Fields is combining the power of nature’s telescopes - massive clusters of galaxies - with HST to provide the intrinsically deepest view of the universe yet. Parallel imaging is providing the second deepest observations of ‘blank fields’, and improve our statistical understanding of most distant and faint galaxies. • NASA’s Great Observatories -- Hubble, Spitzer, and Chandra - will observe the Frontier Field clusters and parallel fields over the next 3 years. • The first set of Hubble observations of Abell 2744 are complete, and images have been publicly released. These reveal thousands of distant galaxies, many at intrinsic luminosities ~10 times fainter than ever seen before. • http://www.stsci.edu/hst/campaigns/frontier-fields • http://frontierfields.wordpress.com/ • https://www.facebook.com/FrontierFields 47

  48. Exploring the Depths of the Universe Jennifer Lotz, Matt Mountain, & the Frontier Fields Team Space Telescope Science Institute,Spitzer Science Center www.stsci.edu/hst/campaigns/frontier-fields contact: lotz@stsci.edu 48