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Design Patterns. Agenda - Design Patterns. What is a design pattern Motivation for patterns Pattern Categories Pattern Examples. Patterns Overview. Patterns support reuse of software architecture and design.

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Design Patterns


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Design Patterns

    2. Agenda - Design Patterns • What is a design pattern • Motivation for patterns • Pattern Categories • Pattern Examples

    3. Patterns Overview • Patterns support reuse of software architecture and design. • Patterns capture the static and dynamic structures and collaborations of successful solutions to problems that arise when building applications.

    4. Motivation for Patterns • Developing software is hard • Developing reusable software is even harder • Patterns provide proven solutions • Patterns can be reused in design

    5. Becoming a software designer • First learn the rules • Algorithms, data structures and languages • Then learn the principles • Structured design, OO design • However to truly master software design, you must study the design of masters • These designs have patterns to be understood, remembered and re-used

    6. Design Pattern – example stock quote service Subject Real Time Stock Quotes Observers

    7. Observer Pattern • Intent • Define a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically. • Key forces • There may be many observers • Each observer may react differently to same notification • Subjects should be decoupled as much as possible from the observer to allow observers to change independently.

    8. Subject attach(Observer) detach(Observer) notify() Observer Pattern – Class diagram Observer 1 * update() ConcreteSubject ConcreteObserver state state getStatus() setStatus() notify() update()

    9. Observer Pattern – sequence diagram s:ConcreteSubject :ConcreteObserver :ConcreteObserver setStatus() notify() update() getStatus() update() getStatus() Sequence Diagram

    10. Pattern Template • Pattern Name and Classification • A good , concise name for the pattern and the pattern's type • Intent • Short statement about what the pattern does • Also Known As • Other names for the pattern • Motivation • A scenario that illustrates where the pattern would be useful • Applicability • Situations where the pattern can be used

    11. Pattern Template (cont’d) • Structure • A graphical representation of the pattern • Participants • The classes and objects participating in the pattern • Collaborations • How to do the participants interact to carry out their responsibilities? • Consequences • What are the pros and cons of using the pattern? • Implementation • Hints and techniques for implementing the pattern

    12. Pattern Template (cont’d) • Sample Code • Code fragments for a sample implementation • Known Uses • Examples of the pattern in real systems • Related Patterns • Other patterns that are closely related to the pattern

    13. Pattern Types • Creational Patterns • Deal with initializing and configuring classes and objects. • Structural Patterns • Deal with decoupling interface and implementation of classes and objects. • Behavioural Patterns • Deal with dynamic interactions among societies of classes and objects.

    14. Creational Patterns • Singleton • Factory for a singular (sole) instance • Factory Method • Method in a derived class creates associates • Builder • Factory for building complex objects incrementally. • Prototype • Factory for cloning new instances from a prototype

    15. Singleton • Pattern Name and Classification • Singleton • Intent • Ensure a class only has one instance, and provide a global point of access to it. • Motivation • There are times when a class can only have one instance.

    16. Singleton • Applicability • there must be only one instance of a class, and it must be accessible to clients from a well-known access point • when the sole instance should be extensible by subclassing, and clients should be able to use an extended instance without modifying their code.

    17. Singleton class Singleton { private static Singleton _instance = null; private Singleton() { //fill in the blank } public static Singleton getInstance() { if ( _instance == null ) _instance = new Singleton(); return _instance; } public void otherOperations() { } }

    18. Singleton class TestSingleton { public void method1(){ X = Singleton.getInstance(); } public void method2(){ Y = Singleton.getInstance(); } }

    19. Structural Patterns • Adapter • Translator adapts a server interface for a client • Bridge • Abstraction for binding one of many implementations • Composite • Structure for building recursive aggregations • Decorator • Decorator extends an object transparently

    20. Bridge • Pattern Name and Classification • Bridge • Intent • Decoupling the interface from implementation • Motivation • Used to hide the implementation from the client. Avoid permanent binding between the client and implementation.

    21. Bridge • Applicability • Avoid a permanent binding between an abstraction and its implementation • both the abstractions and their implementations should be independently extensible by subclassing • changes in the implementation of an abstraction should have no impact on the clients; that is, their code should not have tobe recompiled • you want to hide the implementation of an abstraction completely from clients (users)

    22. Bridge Abstraction Implementor ConcreteImplA ConcreteImplB operationImpl() operationImpl() operationImpl() operation() Client imp.operationImpl()

    23. Behavioural Patterns • State • An object whose behaviour depends on state • Observer • Dependents update automatically when a subject changes • Iterator • Aggregate elements are accessed sequentially

    24. When to use patterns • Solutions to problems that recur with variations. • No need to reuse if the problem occurs only once. • Solutions that require several steps. • Not all problems need all steps • Patterns can be an overkill is problems have simple solutions.