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MGTO 324 Recruitment and Selections. Job Analysis Kin Fai Ellick Wong Ph.D. Department of Management of Organizations Hong Kong University of Science & Technology. Prologue. Do you remember what we want to get from job analysis?. Prologue.

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mgto 324 recruitment and selections

MGTO 324 Recruitment and Selections

Job Analysis

Kin Fai Ellick Wong Ph.D.

Department of Management of Organizations

Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

prologue
Prologue
  • Do you remember what we want to get from job analysis?
prologue3
Prologue
  • Do you remember how we collect information for job analysis?
prologue4
Prologue
  • Do you remember the techniques we use for job analysis?
prologue5
Prologue
  • So, you should have learnt all about job analysis from the HRM course (MGTO 231), what’s more?
  • Learning is a never ending journey (學海無涯) ….
    • There are three types of job analysis
    • HRM course just reveals 1/3 about job analysis
    • Two more recently developed approach of job analysis will be mentioned in this course…
part i a newer conceptualization of ja
Part I:A newer conceptualization of JA
  • Defining job analysis
    • The definition from HRM courses
      • The procedure for determining the duties and skillsrequirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it (from HRM textbook, Dessler, 2002, p. 60)
      • The systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs. Job analysis identifies the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a particular job (from HRM textbook, Gomez-Mejia et al., 2003, p. 61)
    • The definition from our textbook
      • The process of studying jobs in order to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements and rewards.
part i a newer conceptualization of ja9
Part I:A newer conceptualization of JA
  • What’s new?
    • Job requirements and rewards
      • In the HRM course, requirements refer to “specific skills and knowledge”
        • This is the first approach of job analysis
      • Here, requirements refer to “general competency”,
        • This is the second approach of job analysis
      • The HRM course did not mention rewards of a job, here job rewards (extrinsic and intrinsic) are the foci
        • This is the third approach of job analysis
part i a newer conceptualization of ja10
Part I:A newer conceptualization of JA

The previous conceptualization

part i a newer conceptualization of ja11
Part I:A newer conceptualization of JA

The newer conceptualization

part i a newer conceptualization of ja12
Part I:A newer conceptualization of JA
  • Summary
    • The new conceptualization of JA
      • Expands the previous one
      • From specific to more general
        • Job requirement vs. competency approach
      • From focusing more on job to more on human-job interaction
        • Job reward approach
part ii three approaches of job analysis15
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Job requirements approach
    • The conventional approach
    • The one we have learned from HRM
    • Goals:
      • Identifying the specific skills, specific tasks & duties
    • Methods
      • Critical incidents technique
      • Position analysis
      • Functional job analysis
part ii three approaches of job analysis18
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Competency-based approach
    • A more recent, innovative approach
    • Extending the job requirement approach in several ways
      • From single job to multiple jobs
      • From specific job to general job categories
      • The focus is not on the specific skills, but on general or generic KSAOS
        • Web designer: Technical expertise; adaptability; communication skills
        • Soccer player: Muscle strengths; cardio-pulmonary strengths
part ii three approaches of job analysis19
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Competency-based approach
    • Example
      • Sales: Equipment supplier for Life Science Research
        • Specific skills: Sales techniques, bargaining and negotiation skills, knowledge on the specific products (e.g., fMRI, eye-tracking system, etc.)
        • General skills: General understanding on scientific matters (e.g., the puzzle of bible codes; single or multiple origin; conflict and complement between religion and science; limitation of quantum mechanics…. etc.)
        • The salesperson I know got a M.Phil degree in Biology
part ii three approaches of job analysis20
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Competency-based approach
    • You can imagine that this approach is increasingly used by organizations because
      • Organizations are becoming flatter, such that job boundaries are becoming fuzzier than ever (e.g., team oriented, job spanning)
      • The market and the environment are changing very rapidly, adaptation and “improvisation” (執生) are the keys for firms’ survival
      • Also, innovation (i.e., adding values by creating something new) requires more integration across different knowledge and experience
part ii three approaches of job analysis21
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Competency-based approach
    • Method of collecting information
      • “still in infancy” (p. 177, textbook)
        • “much less is known about the best ways to identify and define competencies”
        • Obviously, we need more research to understand how we can collect
        • However, the general rule is
          • The general competencies should be truly important to all job levels
        • The “concept” of “job analysis” is changing…
part ii three approaches of job analysis23
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Job rewards approach
    • Defining and identifying jobs in terms of “rewards”
      • Extrinsic rewards
        • Of course, not surprisingly, it includes pay, benefits, promotion opportunity
        • Identifying these rewards are straightforward
          • Most are the objective facts associated with the jobs
      • Intrinsic rewards
        • Autonomy, utilization of skills and knowledge, skill mastering, completing “meaningful” tasks
        • Identifying or “inferring” these rewards may need more skills
part ii three approaches of job analysis24
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Job rewards approach
    • How to analyze or “infer” the intrinsic rewards associated with a particular job?
      • Recall the theories we have learned from the MGTO 121 OB course:
        • Requisite Task Attributes Theory
          • employees would prefer jobs that were complex and challenging
        • Job Characteristics Model
          • Any job can be described in terms of core job dimensions
          • Skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback
part ii three approaches of job analysis25
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Job rewards approach
    • Analyzing (intrinsic) rewards dimensions
      • Skill variety
        • The degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents
      • Task identity
        • The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
      • Task significance
        • The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people
      • Autonomy
        • The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out
      • Feedback
        • The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his/her performance
part ii three approaches of job analysis26
Part II: Three approaches of job analysis
  • Job rewards approach
    • Analyzing (intrinsic) rewards characteristics
      • Amount of rewards
        • Doing survey on a 1 (not al all) – 7 (substantial) Likert Scale
          • How much “autonomy” is there in your job? That is, to what extent does your job permit you to decide on your own how to go about doing the work?
          • See more on Exhibit 4.22 in your textbook
      • Reward differential
        • Equity vs. equality
          • Equity: rewards are allocated primarily based on individual contribution
          • Equality: rewards “tended” to evenly distributed to team members
        • We can use the SDs of the survey on the same item to infer the differential
          • Low SD  High Equality
      • Reward stability
        • Remains stable over time?
          • Jobs in public sectors: rewards are highly stable
          • Jobs in investment banks: rewards are less stable