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Cell structure & Function - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cell structure & Function. Cell Wall. Main function – provide support & protection for the cell Made of cellulose (carbohydrates) and protiens Located outside the cell membrane of plant, fungi, and some protist cells. Cell Membrane.

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Cell wall
Cell Wall

  • Main function – provide support & protection for the cell

  • Made of cellulose (carbohydrates) and protiens

  • Located outside the cell membrane of plant, fungi, and some protist cells

Cell membrane
Cell Membrane

  • Main function – outer boundary of cell; regulates what can enter and exit the cell

  • Composed of a phospholipid bilayer w/ proteins embedded in the membranes; carbohydrates may attach to proteins


  • Main function – substance where organelles are suspended; site of many chemical reactions

  • Fluid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus


  • Main function – controls most cell processes and contains hereditary information (DNA)

  • Composed of a

    • Nuclear membrane

    • Nuclear pores

    • Nucleolus

    • Chromatin/Chromosomes

  • Located in all eukaryotic cells

Scanning ↑

Transmission ↓

Chromatin chromosomes

  • Chromatin – DNA & Protein when it is loose and thread-like; granular looking; most of the time

  • Chromosomes – DNA & Protein when it condenses to form distinct structures; when cells are dividing


  • Main function – production / assembly of ribosomes

  • Dense region within the nucleus

Nuclear membrane
Nuclear Membrane

  • Main function – surround and protect the contents of the nucleus

  • Double membrane layer

  • Dotted with thousands of nuclear pore which allow material to move into and out of the nucleus


  • Main function – help the cell maintain its shape; also involved in many forms of cell movement

  • Network of protein filaments

    • Microfilaments – smallest; movement & support

    • Intermediate filaments – medium sized

    • Microtubules – largest; transport; cilia; flagella


  • Main function – site of protein synthesis

  • Composed of RNA and protein

  • Can be free floating in the cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Rough ER Main function – manufacture and distribution of proteins; ribosomes are attached

  • Smooth ER Main function – manufacture of lipids and break down toxins; NO ribosomes are attached

Golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus

  • Main Function – modifies, packages, and distributes material in the cell; Material is received from the ER, modified in the Golgi, then sent to the cell or out of cell.

  • Stack of membranes


  • Main function – break down food and/or worn out organelles

  • Small sack containing digestive enzymes


  • Main function – store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

  • Plants have a large central vacuole that help the plant stand upright

  • Saclike structures


  • Main function – use energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules; site of photosynthesis

  • Double membrane structure that contain large states of green membranes; green color is due to the pigment chlorophyll


  • Main function – use energy from food to make high-energy compounds that eh cell can use to power growth, development, and movement

  • Double membrane structure; inner membrane is highly folded


Theory that states - mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendents from ancient prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by other cells; the two cells formed a symbiotic relationship where both cells benefited. Evidence = mitochondria & chloroplasts have DNA, ribosomes, and can divide independently of the cell