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  1. 研究方法與論文寫作 授課老師: 游政谷 文化大學大氣科學系

  2. 授課內容 1.研究基本概念與論文寫作注意事項(2週) 2.學術論文結構與其內容(2~3週) 畢業學位論文 期刊論文 3.英文期刊常用字詞及用法(5週) 4.英文論文寫作練習(3~4週)

  3. 要學好英文需要一些工具書: 1.英漢字典 2.漢英字典 3.萬用字典 4.同義字典 5.反義字典 6.字詞用法相關書籍(較英漢字典的例句多) 7.Paper review

  4. 參考資料: 1. The Craft of Research, 2nd. W. C. Booth, G. G. Colomb, and J. M. Williams, 1995. 2. AMS Authors’ Guide (4th)- 美國氣象學會網站可download 何謂SCI:Science Citation Index 在台灣地球科學相關期刊中,TAO(地球科學期刊)已被納入SCI 成績計算方式: 課堂參與與討論: 50% 期末考試: 50%

  5. 甚麼是研究? (分享時間)

  6. 什麼是研究? (1)發現"問題"(科學問題) (from data,phenomena..) 由文獻資料(paper)可知科學問題現階段的了解狀況 (2)研究方法: a.觀測分析 b.數值模擬 c.理論研究(少數) (3)成果or新發現:對研究的問題作進一步的探討 (4)Writing (i.e., communication with others)

  7. 寫一篇好的論文應該注意哪些事項: (according to guidelines for MWR reviews) 1.Is the study an original contribution in its field? (1)思想的原創性:(研究)<software> ex:縱然分析資料相同,但研究的主題不同或結果不同 (2)分析的資料:<hardware>

  8. 2.Dose the author make errors in inference, interpretation, or mathematical analysis? 是否引用不適當(inappropriate),引用的paper須有代表性. 其觀念須相符合.須正確詮釋其研究結果. 碩士論文一定要正確、適當的"描述" (描述為一般的說明,而詮釋則含有主觀的意思)

  9. • 在學術界:名>利 ex:居禮夫人 • 文章投稿的審稿問題: Q:審稿者如何找? A: Chief Editor(1~2位) Associate Editor(2~5位) Editor(數10位) • " Science" Journal

  10. 3.Does the material lend itself to application in it's field? 要讓讀者知道文章的價值為何?說明文章的應用性(在前言提及)

  11. 4.Is the author's presentation clear, concise (brief and compact), and well-organized? 將文章講清楚、簡明的呈現出來,避免含混

  12. 建議:寫論文前先組織其內容架構,通常論文圖表順 序確定後,內容順序大概即可呈現 ex:第一章 研究動機…第七章 結論與未來 工作 • presentation 口頭 書面:包含文(text)和圖(figure) • illustration與presentation意思不同、前言著 重在圖 ex: Figure 3 illustrates… (figure 放句首須大寫,若放句中可縮寫 Fig.3) ex: The surface analysis, as shown in Fig.3, indicates…

  13. 5.Is the abstract informative, giving the essence of the research in clear terms? • 摘要應包含主要的研究成果或研究方法 • 摘要是決定他人是否要讀此篇文章的關鍵 看文章先看摘要和結論,其次再看前言、… • Title 很重要 英文的Title是以名詞來取,不允許有動詞存在,但有例外: Is Buoyancy relative Quantity?

  14. 6.Dose the paper follow the AMS policy on the use of SI units (International System of Units) as stated in the 1992 Author's Guide? 標準單位寫法: 例:m/s 寫成 m s-1, 而m‧s-1不標準 θe 中文寫"相當位溫" 英文寫"Equivalent Potential Temperature" J 焦耳 W 作功的單位:瓦

  15. Components of a scientific article(科學性文章的內容組織) 1> Abstract(摘要乃全文重點之處) • 需包含主要的結論,還有使用的方法 • 摘要盡量簡短扼要.AMS要求摘要長度不得超過250個字 • 不得有數學的表示式 • 不得在摘要裡引用他人論文(no citation),且不能有註腳 ex:負渦度1平流顯示… 1.2…. (註腳)

  16. 不能出現第一人稱(如 Iヽ myヽour…) ex:1.our observations showed vertical flux (改成Radar, Mesoscale…) of energy is very important. 2.We think that…中文改成根據觀測... 改成 It is suggested that…(認為此事70~80%) It is proposed that …(認為此事70~80%) It is believed that…(認為此事百分之百一定是) It is possible that…(有可能) It is unlikely that…(不可能) It is impossible that…(一定不可能)

  17. ex3: “I (or We) measured the rainfall rates using” 可改成 “the rainfall rates were measured using…”

  18. 2> Text(本文主體)—有以下準則: • 須分為幾個章節(sections) Text Section1 1.Introduction heading(標頭): Section2 賦予標頭實際的意義 Section3…

  19. Section與subsection應根據下面的樣式 英文部分: 1. Primary heading加粗.正體 a. Secondary heading斜體 1) Tertiary heading正體 (וֹ) Quaternary heading用羅馬的וֹ.斜體(少見) 中文部分: 一.標題 (一)副標題 1.副副標題 (1)副副副標題 2. (二) 二.

  20. 3> Acknowledgments (誌謝) 由誌謝可知該研究與哪些人有關, 亦可提高文章的可讀性與價值 ex:感謝who提供資料或誰幫助過我… 期刊論文不須感謝指導老師(因為指導老師通常是作者之一),但學位論文須感謝指導老師 • 盡可能簡短提及主要且需感謝的人 • 對研究有直接幫助(寫作或研究) • 致謝金主和在哪個單位或研究室進行研究

  21. 4> Appendixes(附錄) • 此內容不是主要的研究主題 • 如繁複的數學分析若對讀者有幫助,可放於附錄 • 若超過1個附錄,則須分為"附錄(一) "ヽ"附錄(二) " 或"appendixA"ヽ"appendixB"(通常很少超過 2個附錄) PS. 期刊論文無目錄,學位論文有目錄

  22. 5> References(參考文獻)-有一定的寫法,準則如下: • 編排依姓別 (last name)字母先後順序來排,不可給 定編號(如1.2.3.4.5…) • paper的寫法順序:Author(s), publication year: Article title. Journal name, Volume, page range. ex: Carbone(姓-last name), R(名-用第一個字母代 表)., 1982: A severe frontal rainband. partⅠ: Stormwide hydrodynamic structure. J. Atmos. Sci.(斜體.簡寫), 39(冊.粗體), 258-279.

  23. 外國姓名寫法:名 姓 ex: 姓(last name,or family name): Yuter first name : Sandy middle name: E.(通常是一個字母) 若為第一作者,寫法: Yuter, S. E., 若為第二作者,寫法: S. E. Yuter, 若為兩個作者,寫法: Carbone , R., and S. E. Yuter, (第三作者寫法同第二作者寫法)

  24. 期刊全名與簡寫: ex: 全名: Journal of Atmosphere Sciences 簡寫: J. Atmos. Sci. 全名: Monthly Weather Review 簡寫: Mon. Wea. Rev. • 若為台灣人的姓名寫法: ex: Cheng-Ku Yu Yu, C.-K., ChengKu Yu Yu, C., 二個作者: Yu , C.- K., and C.- Y. Hsu, • 書在參考文獻的寫法與paper不同,寫法如下: Author(s), publication year: Book Title. Publisher, total pages 斜體

  25. 6> Figure Captions(圖說) • 每張圖須有圖說,讓讀者不須讀本文內容即可了解圖的意思 • 圖的編排順序依本文內容提及先後來排 • 編圖技巧:先把圖挑出來分別給圖名字,之後等paper寫完後再給圖編號 ex: Fig. Surface Fig. precipitation • 碩士論文的圖和本文可分開,不硬性規定要放一起,但博士論文須在一起;而paper初稿其圖文多分開,定稿後才耗時處理圖與文的編排

  26. 7> Tables(表) • 每一張表須照號碼編排,並給予表說 • 表說置於表的上方;圖說置於圖的下方 8> Footnotes(註解) • 註解須置於該頁頁尾 • 註解須順序編號 • 減低註解的使用量,在可能的範圍內, 盡量將註解內容安插於本文內

  27. n(名詞) 1. 特性.特徵 ex: • observed characteristics / aspects 觀測特徵 • observational aspects modeling aspects • characteristics(內在特徵特性) 內在動力方面 feature(外在特徵) 外在外觀 • environmental characteristics 環境特徵 (不可用environmental feature)

  28. 2. 周圍,區域,位置 ex: • dust storms in the vicinity of mountains • Environmental condition is unstable along the front and its vicinity 沿著鋒面及其附近的環境條件不穩定 • region •area強調地理位置 地方副詞 所有格. 形容鋒面的附近 western region eastern region

  29. 市 • district區 • • frontal position(鋒面位置) street 南北為 Ave. (Avenue)

  30. 3.目的 ex: • The scientific objective(s) of this study is(are) to… • purpose –較口語話,目的較小 goal – 理想,目標更大更遠 • One of the major objectives of this study is to... • This study is aimed at… = This study aims at… = It is aimed that…

  31. 4. 平衡 ex: • The mass and wind fields are in balance. • I am not in a position to tell you the final result. • The mass field balance(s) the wind field. • Thermodynamic Equilibrium be 介系詞 名詞 *介系詞+名詞=形容詞 employment

  32. 5. 擾動,變化 ex: • perturbation: ū (mean) + ư (perturbation) • fluctuation • Thermal bubbles can exist in a variety of form. 熱胞存在很多種形式 • Vt與Vi的差別: Vt + O Vi (check看看需要加a嗎?)

  33. 6. 方向 ex: • 這鋒面是東西走向:The front is oriented (approximately) east-west. =Orientation of this front is roughly east-west. • 這鋒面往東在移動: This front moved eastward =This front moved toward east. =This front had an eastward movement.

  34. 7. 檢視 ex: • Future detailed investigation is required to (further) improve our understanding on this scientific topic. 8. 論點 9. 部分 • segment:強調物理現象 較短的區段

  35. 10. 長命 11. 污穢 • 地面回波 ground clutter= contamination 12. 星號 補充: solid line dashed line long dashed line dotted line dashed-dotted line thick solid line thin solid line light shading dark shading

  36. 13. 繼起,隨後發生的事 subsequence (n.) consequenceヽsequence subsequently (adv.) ex: ; subsequently, ex: As a result, … = As a consequence,… ex: 有四張地圖,要說明時間序列可用下句 A sequence of surface analysis indicates… 兩者不同 時間在前 時間在後

  37. 14. 儀器 instrument ex: 觀測儀器 observational instrument 設備 equipment 15. 一致 16. 障礙物 •大氣中常指的障礙物barrier乃指山(mountain barrier) ex: barrier jet ex: mountain–parallel wind maximum,即 barrier jet barrier 二維 obstacle 三維 •

  38. 17. 現象 單數 phenomenon 複數 phenomena ex: Barrier jet is an important phenomenon in Taiwan. Many weather phenomena in Taiwan are related to orographic effects.

  39. 18. decent 下降 updraft (上升) w:較大.尺度較小 ascent (上升) w:較小.尺度較大 downdraft (下降) decent (下降) 通常形容氣流慢慢上升或慢慢下降用 ascentヽdecent 通常做中小尺度常用updraft, 大尺度多用ascent • ascend (Vt.)

  40. 19. 對流層 lower troposphere ( 高度< 5km) middle troposphere (~ 5km) 4~6km upper troposphere (> 7~8km) low-to-middle troposphere (2~5km) mid-to-high troposphere (>= 5km) 近地面 low levels (at low levels) 最低層 the lowest level near surface 20. scenario 描述整個事件的情況,一個事件的過程

  41. Vt.(動詞) 1. 預測 • realize 與 visualize 之差異 2. 變寬 • broaden = become wider ex: The frontal zone broadened in the next three hours. = The frontal zone became wider in the next three hours. ex: The frontal zone (which is) characterized by pronounced temperature gradient…

  42. 3. 闡明 ex: We will elucidate this point (more detailedly) in section 4. • interpret 詮釋(v.) interpretation (n.) ex: Increase in temperature is interpreted as a result of warm advection. 溫度的增加可以詮釋為暖平流的結果

  43. 4. 強調 ex: We will emphasize this later. ex: We will emphasize the role of cloud physics in the formation/generation of this phenomenon. 我們將要強調雲物理的角色在這現象的產生 5. 執行 ex: execute a flight mission 不可用on

  44. 6. 認為 ex: Coastal Range can be (reasonably) considered/regarded as a two-dimensional barrier. ex: In this study, Coastal Rang is assumed to be a two-dimensional barrier. 7. 推測 • speculation (n.) ex: Too many speculation are found in your paper.(文章太多推測不好) = Your paper is filled with speculations. • conjecture 和 speculate須以人為主詞

  45. * allow + o. + to 8.允許 ex: Measurements from disdrometer allow us to study the (characteristic of) drop-size distributions. ex: Dual-Doppler synthesis permits a detailed examination of three dimensional wind fields. = Measurements from disdrometer permit the investigation of drop-size distribution. • permission (n.) 權限,允許 ex: You cannot enter my room without my permission. < o.>

  46. 名詞子句 9. 顯示 句型: … indicate that … ex: Analysis from Fig.8 indicates that warm advection is very important in triggering convection. = Analysis from Fig.8 indicates/shows/reveals the importance/significance of warm advection on triggering convection.

  47. 10. 促進 • improve our understanding = explore our knowledge ex: The main objective of this study is to improve our understanding of dust storm. 11. 幫助 ex: This research is proceeded with the aid of a numerical model. • paper 中通常以 helpful (adj.) 出現 ex: A convective unstable environment is helpful/favorable for the development of deep convection. = can help

  48. 12. 展示ヽ圖示 • displayヽillustrate 圖示 • illustrate 亦可用在意念的展示 • demonstrate 通常用於意念的展示ヽ證明 ex: This study has demonstrated that… 但不可用 This study has displayed that…

  49. 13. 建議ヽ提出ヽ記載ヽ報告 • suggest 的主詞可為人或物,但propose主詞須為人 • propose有建議ヽ提出的意思 ex: Cheng-Ku presents on interesting concept. • stateヽnoteヽreport表較不重視的表明 ex: Tun-cheng notes/states this information in his book. • present (adj.) 存在的 ex: The code advection was present in the lowest 1 km.

  50. 14. 詳述 • detailedly (adv.) • in detail = detailedly 15. 代表 ex: Light (dark) shading represents the regions of upward (downward) motions. 16. 描述 ex: Fig.10 is described/depicted to explain the role of static stability.