Early Modern Era 1450-1750. Technologies: Ships, compass, Navigation tools, Maps Western Europeans synthesize postclassical Arab and Chinese, even Viking knowledge. Note how different areas are reacting to changes Note the differences in economic development
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Technologies: Ships, compass, Navigation tools, Maps Western Europeans synthesize postclassical Arab and Chinese, even Viking knowledge
Note how different areas are reacting to changes Note the differences in economic development Note the changes and continuities in major religious traditions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism Note changes and continuities in gender relationships a major continuity of the early modern period, PATRIARCHY Note changes in trade patterns, etc. Note the role of technology—military, maritime Note the rise of the bourgeoisie in western Europe
Columbian Exchange: Peoples (demographic), diseases, foods, animalsCONSEQUENCES AND DEVELOPMENTS
Development of Maritime Empires: Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British (cores/peripheries)Mercantilism—economic/political policy with social consequencesLatin American Society: racism(Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, Africans, natives), Catholic missionaries: Jesuits, land ownership patterns (almost feudal)
Viceroys, Council of the IndiesBritish and Dutch Trading CompaniesConsider the develpments of overseas empiresCompare Maritime Empires to Land EmpiresUnderstand the political, social and economic consequences of the Atlantic System—the interactions of peoples from Africa, Latin America and AfricaAztec, Incan peoplesPortuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British peoplesKongo, Benin, Songhay peoples--Portugal was partially successful with Christianizing Kongo, though later, because of the slave trade, Kongo rejects Portuguese influence Why were Europeans able to conquer peoples in Latin America and not in Africa? What are the long term consequences of the slave trade?
Indian Ocean Trade System Changes Continuities Players Trade Goods Compare the Chinese interactions with European interactions British and Dutch—consequences of the Seven Years War, the British become the dominant imperial power, an attribute of the modern era
Goods, peoples, changes and continuities East Africa, Middle East, South Asia and Southeast Asia Mecantilism: the domination of trade from product and production to Transportation to market—all by a single country, one willing to use force to continue.The dominant position within a trade route and with a particular product.
Ming Dynasty: Voyages, trade goods, Neo-Confucianism—reassertion of power after the fall of Mongol Yuan Dynasty, reject- tion of mercantilism, Influence of silver and potatoes and corn (demographic effect), Arrival of European missionaries— astronomical and military and clock-making technology
Ming – Voyages, Confucian elite, demographic expansion due to new crops, Jesuits, European technology (significant change), trading with Europeans, Hongwu (emperor), Matteo Ricci (Jesuit missionary) SILVERSILVERSILVERSILVER Luxury Goods: silks, porcelain, furniture Fall of the Ming: retreat from overseas, weak Rulers, decay of Infrastructure, invasion of the Manchus (note the similarities with Fall of Song and Han and Qing dynasties)
Tokugawa Japan Isolationist; more centralized; emergence of Japanese culture
Tokugawa: (a novel reaction to the challenges of central authority and to the appearance of Maritime Empires ---Initial interaction with Portuguese and Dutch Traders (Christian missionaries have limited success) Doubts about the intentions of Europeans and the fact that leaders perceive Christianity a threat to social and political unity (notions conflated throughout Japanese history) cause the Tokugawa leaders to institute a policy of isolation ----Christianity and missionary activity made illegal (punishable by death) ----trade heavily regulated—only Dutch and Chinese on a small island outside of Nagasaki ----Japanese ships and citizens forbidden to travel -----School of National Learning fosters Japanese cultural practices -----Development of kabuki theater, woodblock printing TOKUGAWA PERIOD ENDS WITH MEIJI RESTORATION
ISLAMIC EMPIRES: OTTOMAN, SAFAVID AND MUGHAL Safavid Ottoman Mughal Islam, Gunpowder Armies, General economic decline Architecturally Amazing
Ottoman Empire: expanded into Mamluk, Byzantine and Il-Khan Empires in Middle East and Eastern Europe, and North Africa in postclassical and Early Modern Era. Conquest kept the economy expanding; when expansion stopped a general economic decline ensued (connect to Maritime Revolution, inflationary pressures due to silver) Political and Military structure: Sultanate (Suleiman rules at the apex of Ottoman Emp.) Islamic Legal System shari’a (Qadi) Janissaries (a military and a political force, competing with Islamic judges and bureaucrats) A formidable, gunpowder army, expanding during much of the era Maritime: unable to compete with Portuguese in Indian Ocean Decline of Silk Route and Mediterranean trade hurts the Ottomans—blocked from Indian Ocean Trade by W.Imp.PweS
Safavid Empire: in Persia, linguistically and culturally distinct From Ottomans and Arabs, Safavids embrace Shi’a Islam Build majestic capital city, Isfahan. Rulers known as shahs not sultans (?). Ruled also by a warrior nobility and slaves loyal to the Shah (similar to janissaries). Slave infantry using guns the core of military organization. Abbas the Great rules at the apex of Safavid power. Safavids fight a series of wars with the Ottomans on their western borders. State support of imams and mullahs (Shi’a religious leaders have more powerful role than Sunni leaders) Like Ottomans, Safavid rulers keep harems The veil is uncommon in Safavid Empire (patriarchy) Economy stagnates, agricultural decline, hurt by inflation Nomads from the north and east destabilize Safavids, leads to end of the empire in 1700’s.
Mughals: Empire started by Babur, a nomadic warrior related to Timur and to Mongol Khans—last nomadic warrior of note. Akbar rules the Mughals at the apex of power. Able to expand in South Asia. Akbar tries to deal with Hindu/Muslim animosity. Respects Hindu traditions. Attempts to create a new syncretic faith (the language of the Mughals, Urdu, is also an example of syncretism. Powerful women have a big influence in Mughal court (harem culture). Some Mughal leaders try to supress the practice of Sati Uses powerful infantry to expand in South Asia (gunpowder). Encourages changes in gender practices—end to child marriage and sati—no lasting impact in South Asia. Mughals create great architecture and great visual arts. Ineffective rulers--Aurangzeb, growing animosities of Hindu majority, inflationary economy: all lead to imperial decline
Russia: The centralized, Tsarist autocracy centered in Moscow develops to meet the Mongol threat, cut off from Western Europe for much of the postclassical and Early Modern period. Orthodox Church develops distinct institutions and practices (Byzantine legacy). Group of conservatives, known as Old Believers, oppose reforms in religious practices, also oppose Peter the Greats reforms (many exiled to Siberia). Peter the Great most dynamic ruler of the period. Peters reforms: encourages the adoption western intellectual, social practices by the noble elites (many resist)—famous beard cutting incident. Encourages economic development, Maritime trade and ship building (after conquests from Sweden), fur and mining industries. New military organization, new education (to foster military technology)—moves capital to St. Petersburg. No bourgeoisie develops, no political reforms Serfdom develops in Russian society, the extension rather the reformation of feudalism. Remains highly patriarchical.
Luther Reformation Galileo Scientific Revolution Locke Newton Note the hair Enlightenment
Changes and developments in Western Europe: ---stronger centralized governments and urbanization, growth of bourgeoisie: all these changes lead to a decline in Feudalism (peasants no longer tied to land) ---Religious Reformation: a political and religious movement, violent, end of universality in Western Europe (no longer a strong centralizing institution) Counterreformation ---Renaissance (begun in Italy, Scientific Revolution—Europe now a Center for Scientific Revolution in astronomy, mathmatics and weapons technology, and the Enlightenment, a movement more focused on human organization, Both economic and political : all secular ---MARITIME REVOLUTION Absolutism: term for strong single rulers—examples Elizabeth I (general trend throughout the world in the Early Modern Era. NAVIES, GUNPOWDER, IMPERIAL COMPETITION BRITAIN, AFTER SEVEN YEARS WAR, EMERGES FROM THE EARLY MOD ERN ERA AS THE DOMINANT POWER IN THE WORLD. I HAVE TO PEE! I HAVE TO PEE!