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II. Bohr Model of the AtomPowerPoint Presentation

II. Bohr Model of the Atom

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### II. Bohr Model of the Atom

### III. Quantum Model of the Atom

Electrons in Atoms

A. Bohr Model

- NielsHenrik David Bohr 1885 - 1962
- Born 1885, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Father was an eminent physiologist.
- 1911 - Studied and worked at Cambridge under Sir JJ Thomson
- 1912 – worked in Ernest Rutherford’s lab in Manchester, England.
- 1922 – Nobel Prize in Physics for work on the structure of atoms.

A. Bohr Model

- e- exist only in orbits with specific amounts of energy called energy levels
- Therefore…
- e- can only gain or lose certain amounts of energy
- only certain photons are produced

Energy of photon depends on the difference in energy levels

Bohr’s calculated energies matched the IR, visible, and UV lines for the H atom

B. Line-Emission Spectrum6

5

4

3

2

1

B. Line-Emission Spectrum

- Each element has a unique bright-line emission spectrum.
- “Atomic Fingerprint”

Helium

- Bohr’s calculations only worked for hydrogen!

A. Electrons as Waves

- Louis de Broglie (1924)
- Applied wave-particle theory to e-
- e- exhibit wave properties

QUANTIZED WAVELENGTHS

B. Quantum Mechanics

- Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
- Impossible to know both the velocity and position of an electron at the same time

B. Quantum Mechanics

- SchrödingerWave Equation (1926)
- finite # of solutions quantized energy levels
- defines probability of finding an e-

Orbital

B. Quantum Mechanics- Orbital (“electron cloud”)
- Region in space where there is 90% probability of finding an e-

B. Quantum Mechanics

- Summary of Quantum Theory
- Describes mathematically the wavelike properties of e-1 and other small particles.
- Applies to ALL atoms (unlike the Bohr model)
- Supports the idea that e-1 exist in regions called orbitals where there is a probability of finding them.
- Ask me about the 4th bullet point

B. Quantum Mechanics

- Organization of electrons in atoms
- Energy levels
- Sublevels
- Orbitals

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