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  1. Het zwakke parlement, LDP, ambtenaren en kiezers ‘Who Governs?’

  2. Introduction • How could LDP maintain power since ’55? • Tradition? • Who holds power actually? • Pyramid(Karel Van Wolferen) • Iron triangle • Bureaucrats (Chalmers Johnson) • Which role for the prime minister? Van Wolferen: With Koizumi at the Theatre: http://joiwiki.ito.com/joiwiki/index.cgi?karel_van_wolferen_with_koizumi_at_the_theatre

  3. LDP: dragon with many heads • LDP: conventional political party? • Explaining LDP power • 1. Factions • 2. Goodwill by bureaucrats • 3. Zoku • 4. Election system • 5. Iron triangle

  4. 1. Factions 派閥 • Origin at creation of LDP • Election system favors faction structure of party: funds and competition • Necessary for reaching important party functions • Importance of money: 後援会 • 農協: votes and money for protection

  5. Factions 派閥 2 • At origin: informal groups for cultural reasons • Now: rational organizations structured like party and balancing positions • 4 main functions in party by members of different factions • Tanaka tried to challenge this unwritten rule but failed • 1993 factions abolished but recreated • Koizumi challenges factions but strengthens own

  6. Evolution of the Tanaka faction

  7. 2. Servants of the people? 官僚 • Prewar privileged status • Servants of the emperor • Todai • Postwar status • Provide experience for political parties: close links LDP-bureaucrats (loyalty) • Engineers of miracle • MITI • AG • Amakudari • No democratic accountability

  8. Difficulties ahead for Ishihara…

  9. Tarnished image in the 1990s • First critique due to pollution • Tanaka controls bureaucrats • Niigata gets shinkansen • Slow and inadequate reaction after Kobe earthquake • HIV-scandal • 10-2001: high level bureaucrat convicted • Existed special culture in the ministries: above the law, corruption seemed aquired right

  10. Administrative Reform • APL 1994 • Hashimoto: reduce ministries and bureaucrats • Finance • Post • Labor • Defense • New structure in 1-2001

  11. Structure of the administration • Head of ministry: 事務次官・政務次官 • 1.150 m bureaucrats • 3 levels of exams: 1. 800 recruited and become members of highest administrative level • ¼ of LDP mp is former bureaucrat • 53 is average age for retirement = amakudari 天下り • 縄張り (sectionalism) Agriculture and MITI conflict over liberalization of rice

  12. 3. 族: member of parliament and lobbyer opposed to reform • Become kind of bureaucrats in party • Tanaka was maybe first • Three kinds • Own interests • Post • Agriculture • construction • Ideology • Defence • education • Idealistic • Cooperation between opposition and LDP Zoku in Education policy: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~ljs2k/zoku.txt

  13. Only opposition to bureaucracy?

  14. 4. The election system: power to the farmers • Every citizen can vote from 20 • Districts decided before industrialization • Inequality of votes: against art 14 Const. • Chiba 380.000 • Ehime 75.000 • Court did not nullify elections • New election system wanted badly in major cities but against interest of LDP

  15. Election campaign:no limits • Very strict laws • Informally much more: personal visits, attending ceremonies, offering money,… • Dependency on money barrier for reform and open politics

  16. The new election system: 1994 • 300 single-seat constituencies • 180 proportional seats (11 districts) • Purpose: • only larger parties, • coalitions, • no longer money politics, • more women, • equity between villages and cities • Effects clear in 11-2003 • Komeito • Still inequality votes: 2.4:1 (Kanagawa: Tottori); higher house 5:1 (Tokyo:Tottori)

  17. 5. Iron Triangle • LDP • Bureaucrats • Presidents of large companies • dependency • Mutual background

  18. Summary • Dependency between powerful groups • Lack of pluralism cause of power structure • New Japan possible thanks to a new election system

  19. Lectuur volgende week (2-12-2009) • Hoofdstuk 7 en 8 • Voorbereiden mondelinge presentatie van 5 minuten met drie suggesties voor het nieuwe plan.