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Business Strategies in Different Industry & Sectoral Contexts. Foundations of Strategy: Chapter 5 Team 5. Overview. All companies have to adapt to change Driving forces that affect an industry environment: External Forces + New Competitive Change = Change in an industry environment

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Business strategies in different industry sectoral contexts

Business Strategies in Different Industry & Sectoral Contexts

Foundations of Strategy: Chapter 5

Team 5


  • All companies have to adapt to change

  • Driving forces that affect an industry environment:

  • External Forces + New Competitive Change = Change in an industry environment

  • Objective: Understand how managers adapt to and predict change

Industry life cycle
Industry Life Cycle

  • Supply-side equivalent of the Product Life Cycle

  • Likely to be of longer duration than that of a single product

  • 4 phases

    • Introduction/emergence

    • Growth

    • Maturity

    • Decline

  • Factors that drive ILC

    • Demand Growth

    • Production Knowledge

Demand growth
Demand Growth

  • Stage of the life cycle are defined by the changes in an industry’s growth rate over time

  • Introduction

    • Sales are small

    • Market penetration rate is low

    • Costs are higher and lower quality

    • Customers tend to be affluent and risk-tolerant

  • Growth

    • Accelerated market penetration

    • Technical improvements and increased efficiency

Demand growth cont d
Demand Growth Cont’d

  • Maturity

    • Market saturation continues to increase

  • Decline

    • New industries produce new, superior products

Production diffusion of knowledge
Production & Diffusion of Knowledge

  • A new industry is created from new knowledge in the form of product innovation

  • Introduction:

    • Product technology advances rapidly

    • Sales are primarily aimed at enthusiasts and pioneers

  • Over the span of the life cycle:

    • Customers become increasingly informed and are able to judge various products better

Dominant designs technical standards
Dominant Designs & Technical Standards

  • Dominant Design: product architecture that defines the look, functionality and production method. It is accepted as the industry standard; design may not be proprietary or hold a profit advantage

  • Overall configuration of a product or system

  • EX: Underwood Model 5 Typewriter

Dominant designs technical standards cont d
Dominant Designs & Technical Standards Cont’d

  • Technical Standard: technology or specification that is important for compatibility; intellectual property

  • Emerge when network effects arise – or a need for users to connect in some way

Strategy at different stages of the life cycle

Strategy at different stages of the life cycle


Growth Phase

Maturity Phase

Decline Phase

Introduction phase
Introduction Phase

  • Number of firms in an industry increases rapidly during early stages

  • Basis of entry is product innovation

  • Subsequent success comes from winning the battle for technological leadership

  • Born Global Companies- derive significant competitive advantage from the use of resources and the sale of output in other countries

Growth phase
Growth Phase

  • As demand grows in the domestic market a dominant design usually emerges

  • Key challenge becomes scaling up

  • As the market expands, the firm needs to adapt its product design and manufacturing capability to large scale production

Maturity phase
Maturity Phase

  • Cost efficiency through scale economies, low wages and low overheads become the key success factors

  • Industries go through “shakeout” phases during which firm failures increase sharplydepending on international competition

  • Special niche markets develop in the process

Decline phase
Decline phase

  • Decline can be a result of technological substitution

  • Key features of declining industries are:

    • Excess Capacity

    • Lack of technological change

    • High average age of both physical and human resources

    • Aggressive price competition

Public sector
Public Sector

Defined by:

  • Ownership

  • Funding

    • Public Goods

    • Market Failure

  • Interests Served

Not for profits

Surplus funds are used to pursue organizational goals

Education, Health Care, Social Services, Arts and Culture, Religion

Social enterprises
Social Enterprises

Have philanthropic goals

Prioritize social responsibilities

Impacts on strategy
Impacts on Strategy

  • Multiple, potentially conflicting goals

  • Distinctive constraints and different levers

  • An absence of market forces

  • Monopoly power

  • Less autonomy and flexibility

  • Increases accountability

  • Less predictability

Specific impacts on not for profits
Specific Impacts on Not-for-profits

The employment of volunteers


Stakeholder analysis
Stakeholder Analysis

  • The process of identifying, understanding and priortising the needs of key stakeholders so that the questions of how stakeholders can participate in strategy formulation and how relationships with stakeholders are best managed can be addressed.

Key steps in stakeholder analysis
Key steps in Stakeholder Analysis

  • Identification of the list of potential stakeholders

  • Ranking stakeholders according to their importance and influence on the organization

  • Identifying the criteria that each stakeholder is likely to use to judge the organization’s performance.

  • Deciding how well the organization is doing from its stakeholders’ perspective.

  • Identifying what can be done to satisfy each stakeholder.

  • Identifying and recording longer term issues with individual stakeholders and as a group.

Scenario analysis
Scenario analysis

  • A systematic way of thinking about how the future might unfold that builds on what we know about current trends and signals.

Key steps in building and using scenarios
Key Steps in building and using scenarios:

  • Defining the purpose of the analysis

  • Deciding on the time horizon

  • Identifying key trends

  • Identifying key uncertainties

  • Creating the scenarios and checking that they are internally consistent

  • Identifying indicators that might signal which scenario is unfolding

  • Assessing the strategic implications of each scenario