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Educators Who Challenge The Cultural Divide. Jennifer Bowens Nick Curran Nina Kraft Katie Olson Eva Tucker. Sylvia Ashton-Warner. 1908-1984. Born in Stratford, Taranaki . Warner became a student teacher in Willington in 1926. Attended Auckland Teachers' College in 1928.

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Sylvia Ashton-Warner


  • Born in Stratford, Taranaki.
  • Warner became a student teacher in Willington in 1926.
  • Attended Auckland Teachers' College in 1928.
  • Wrote her treatise Teacher in 1963.
  • Ashton-Warner died on April 28, 1984, in Tauranga.

“The truth is that I am enslaved... in one vast love affair with 70 children.”

sylvia ashton warner
Sylvia Ashton-Warner


  • Public work was centered on her teaching, and in particular, with experiments encouraging Maori children to read.
  • Key vocabulary: a set of words with a special meaning relating to their emotional life.
  • Teaching and approach to education are closely linked to her contribution to New Zealand literature.
sylvia ashton warner1
Sylvia Ashton-Warner

Wrote a treatise in 1963 called Teacherincludes:

  • techniques she used to teach Maori children.
  • commitment to "releasing the native imagery and using it for working material."
  • belief that communication must produce a mutual response in order to affect a lasting change.

Other Writings: Spinster, Incense to Idols (1960), Bell Call (1969), Three (1970), Greenstone (1966), Stories from the River (1986), Myself (1966), I Passed this Way (1979)(NC)

paulo freire
Paulo Freire


  • Educational viewpoint was shaped through his experiences with poverty and culture.
  • Appointed Director of the Department of Education in 1946.
  • Appointed director of the Department of Cultural Extension of Recife University in 1961.
  • Freire was appointed Secretary of Education for São Paulo in 1988.

Paulo Freire

  • Taught 300 sugarcane workers to read and write in just 45 days.
  • Most famous book, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, published in 1968.
  • He is most well known for concepts such as:
    • -"Banking" Education
    • -"Conscientization”-"Culture of Silence”

Other important concepts include:

"Dialectic", "Empowerment", "Generative Themes/Words", "Humanization", "Liberatory Education", "Mystification", "Praxis", " Problematization", and "Transformation of the World.“

paulo freire1
Paulo Freire

Came up with an educational theory that consisted of 8 parts:

Theory of Value

Theory of Knowledge

Theory of Human Nature

Theory of Learning

Theory of Transmission

Theory of Society

Theory of Consensus

Theory of Opportunity

What is Critical Education?

james a banks
James A. Banks


”Unity without diversity leads to hegemony, and diversity without unity leads to chaos.”

james a banks1
James A. Banks
  • Appointed member of the Task Force to Reevaluate Social Science Textbooks in California (1971).
  • The twenty-ninth annual faculty lecturer at the University of Washington in 2004-05.
  • Received Social Justice in Education Award in 2004 from the AERA.
  • Banks is currently the Director of the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle.
james a banks2
James A. Banks
  • He is a specialist in multicultural education and in social studies education.
  • He defined four major approaches to multicultural curriculum:

-contributions approach

-additive approach

-transformation approach

-social action

  • Other books: Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies; Cultural Diversity and Education: Foundations, Curriculum and Teaching; Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives;Race, Culture, and Education: The Selected Works of James A. Banks
not a slide
  • I will post the hand out here when I get it so that you may all see what it looks like.