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timbuktu the city of mali
Timbuktu (the city of Mali)



  • Mansa Musa’s Support
  • By Traders
    • Muhammad Askia (Spodek p.366)
    • Sub-Saharan, Caravans, Berber, Arab traders
    • Good Trade Relations
  • Intellectual Exploration
    • Religious Studies
    • Literature prosperity
    • Education Organizations
  • Trade Center
    • Gold, ivory, salt, animal skin, and slaves
      • (Barron’s AP World History 3rd Edition, p.138)
  • Studying Center
    • Islamic scholars
    • Oral storytelling and song making

- Acted as an one end of the Silk Road  Major trading center  cosmopolitan

- The capital of Sui, Tang Dynasty  One of the biggest cities

- Biggest city in China since Han dynasty

- Cultural influence to near regions  Kyoto

- Political significance: legitimacy, much is lost since the 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms period


So… where does this end up?

- The recession of Chang’an  Rebellions

-- An Shi Rebellion

-- Huang Chao rebellion

- Not selected to become a capital of any countries.

-- Corresponds to the decline of the Silk Roads



Venice: An island city, the greatest seaport in late medieval Europe and its commercial and cultural link with Asia, Venice is unique environmentally, architecturally, and historically.



“Immensely wealthy Italian city-state of the Medival period”

  • Significance
  • Cultural
  • -Venice was influenced by many regions
  • -”Myth of Venice”
  • Influence from other regions
  • *Palace, Church



-Political structure – patriciate governs

-The commune: Republic



  • Significance
  • Economical
  • -Maritime trade: the major hub of Mediterranean trade
  • -End of 10th century, Venice : most economically developed city in Italy.
  • -Trade conflicts
  • 14th and 15th, Venice : Golden age (influenced by Crusades)

Decline of Venice

-Under Francesco Foscari

*Crusade: A series of Christian holy wars conducted against infidels.

Relationship between Byzantine Empire (330–1453)

rome before avignon papacy
Rome: Before Avignon Papacy

golden age of church

Conflicts btw nobility and pope


Republican constitution survived both papal and imperial rule pope large cash payment to senators

pope Innocent tried to secure pope’s position  conflict with Orsini.

Innocent cherish to Roman. Roman supports for a while

Tax problem: resurgence, more, severe


Lost reforming zeal from people

Royal power grew

France tries to arrests the pope pope dies

  • 7th century~ early 9th century : Grew dramatically


-Vigorous buildings

  • Late 9th~mid 11th: uneasy peace between papacy and Nobility  dispute
  • 11th~12th C : golden age

-rule state throughout Europe

-many pilgrims  gifts… flow money

rome avignon papacy
Rome: Avignon Papacy

Avignon Papacy

  • cardinal divided: pro, anti-Bonifacian

-elect archbishop, they made pope more vulnerable

  • make pope refuge -Establish papal curia in Avignon

-Establish loyal faction

  • Controlled by France –France appoint pope and clergies

-Pope followed what France says

Try to Go Back

  • After one of effective (clement) archbishop dies:cardinals deeply divided - go back to Rome or not
  • Pope John XXII : forceful – feud stops for a while

- tried to go back Italy

sent subordinates -Emperor of Italy against

Failed -France and archbishops didn’t agree

-John’s death: pope decline

-Hundred Years’ War

rome after avignon papacy
Rome: After Avignon Papacy

Great Schism

  • Pope Gregory returns from Avignon (1377)
  • France oppose: elect new one  two groups meet and elect new pope: 3 popes  schism
  • Popes abdicate (1415~1417) elect new (1417)

:schism ended but pope’s power hit the floor

In This Period

  • spread of heresy
  • collapse of priests
  • Black Death: corrupted church


  • secular government grow
  • people started to refuse the religion climate of Protestant Reformation


Ka’aba in Mecca

Religious Influence

Center of religion

Birth of Muhammad

Prominent role in worship: Ka’aba

Five Pillars: Pilgrimage to Mecca

Umma: community of



Economical Influence

Islamic trade center

Silk Road

Economic benefits to Quraysh tribes


Political Influence

Muhammad’s return to Mecca

Muhammad’s power


history of medina
History of Medina
  • Sahifa al-Medina : Constitution of Medina
  • Migrated to

Medina in 622 C.E

  • Diverse than

Mecca : Jews,

Muslims, idolaters.

Prophet’s Mosque


significance of medina
Significance of Medina
  • Not an obligatory part of the pilgrimage
  • Visit purpose of ziyara, pious visit.
  • capture the early history of the prayer ritual, also strengthen the believer’s resolve and commitment to these practice.
  • Political leadership


karakorum 2 as the capital of mongol empire
Karakorum… 2. As the Capital of Mongol Empire

Ogedei Khan erects permanent political structures

Has temples of all the major religions … (Primary document by William of Rubruck)

Housed workmen from around the empire (French Goldsmith)

karakorum 3 factors for growth over time
Karakorum … 3. Factors for Growth Over Time

Mongol Conquest  More buildings, religious centers

Exploration  Spread of knowledge, though slow

Slave Trade (13C, slaves sold at Karakorum)  Ethnic diversity, larger workforce

Commercial Trade  Trade w. China, Southeast Asia, Middle East increases

samarkand significance
Samarkand: Significance
  • Culture– reflects multi-ethnicity: Turks, Persians, Arabs, Mongols
    • Architecture
    • Garden Making
    • Samarkand Rug
  • Center of Islamic learning
    • Patronized Turkish as a literary language
    • Poetry, literature
    • Scholars
      • Al Samarkandi – medicine, astronomy, philosophy, theology, logic
      • Uluh Beg – astronomy, math
what was the role of baghdad
What was the role of Baghdad?
  • Capital city of the Abbasid dynasty
    • Architecture
    • Arts
    • Cultures
    • Finance
    • Markets/Trades
    • Education
    • Science/technology
  • Religious center
  • Military character
  • Commercial activities

Abbasid Palace(late 12th/early 13th C)

  • Founded in 762 as the capital of the Abbasid dynasty
    • Most significant cultural centre of Arab and Islamic civilization
    • Symbol of Muslim culture and achievement
  • Economically developed metropolis
    • Juncture of the land and water trade routes
  • Mongol invasion in 1258 C.E
  • Became local center of the Mongol Empire
damascus location
Damascus: Location
  • It is now the capital of Syria.
  • It was the capital of the Islamic Caliphate.
  • Known as the oldest inhabited city.
  • Cultural Growth

-The Great Mosque

-Easy communication

  • Economic growth


role of this city
Role of this city
  • Capital of Umayyad

- Centre of Culture and Trade

  • Crusade
development and decline of kiev
Development and decline of Kiev
  • Slavs established their own settlement on a hill and was named for Kiy.
  • Kiev was not based on agriculture. Therefore, trade was occurred along the Dniper river. Trade also went to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia
  • Kiev established diplomatic relations with Byzantium, England, France, Sweden, and other countries.
  • Decline: in late 12th century, the power of the city had declined. In 1238, Genghis Khan invaded Rus and conquered the towns of central Russia. Much of the city was destroyed and the most of its population killed
religious development
Religious development
  • The introduction of Christianity to Kiev enhanced its significance as the spiritual center of Russia.
  • The city’s wealth and religious importance was attested to by its more than 400 churches.
  • In 957, Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Byz. Christianity
  • Her grandson(valdimir) 980CE convert to orthodoxy
  • Artistic tradition of icon painting, Byzantine style architecture, monasticism religious education, legal principles and other patterns of thought
  • The Cathedral of St. Sophia
all about moscow

Oblast , western Russia

  • South : Oka River, Moskva River
  • Southeast: plain drops to the Meshchera Lowland
  • Northern Edge: Central Russoan Upland

All about Moscow

Capital city of the Russian Federation

important center in 14th century

moscow in christianity
Moscow in Christianity
  • 15th century
  • After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453),  regarded as the “Third Rome”
  • Integrating modern technology, eagle symbols, the work of going back to Rome

- after Chinggis’s death 1227

  • Four sons continued their expansions
  • Along the lands, they entered Russia, and took Moscow Kiev
  • Russia began to take its modern form

- After Ivan III (r. 1462- 1505)

cairo geography
Cairo - Geography
  • Located along the Nile
  • The Largest City of Africa





one of the world’s great trade centers

sheltered a very significant Jewish community

Created a religiously important societies in N. Africa

  • The Most Important Religious Icons of Cairo (640CE, Amr ibn al-A)
  • Mosque of Ibn Tulun
  • Reaching its zenith under Mamluk’s control in 14th C
  • Economy started to decline since 15th C
  • King of Kanem converted to Islam constructed a religious school in Cairo.
    • Expansion of Fatimid Rulers to begin their administration in Fustat.
    • Economic Inflation – Mansa Musa

Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World I (Pg. 115~116)

Spodek: World History, 3rd Edition



[Northern India]

Climate/Region Dryness, Hot summer/Hillside

-Fruit (neem, jaman, sissoo)  increase of population



Wild boar

-animals (wild boar, & monkey)  increase of pop

Qutb Mibnar

-Increase of pop  urbanization Market

Interaction of SR & IOR


-Important city for other markets (ECON)

-Indo-Muslim  role of spreading Muslim? (REL)

-Pashtun style (1193-1320)

e.x) Quwat-ul-Islam mosque

The Qutb Mibnar

Tomb of Iltutmish

Alai Gate




1. Tomar dynasty (736) – Lal Kot

-inscribed on Iron Pillar of Delhi

-given by Vibudh Shridhar

-learning eloquent language

2.Lal kot’s  Qila Rai Pithora

(Chauhan King of Ajmer conquer 1180)

3. Delhi Sultanate (1206) (Under the Slave Dyansty)

1st Sultan  Qutb-ud-din Aybak (former slave  become a general

4. Helding power (After SLAVE DYNASTY)

Khilji dynasty  Tughluq dynasty  Sayyid dynasty  Lodi dynasty

5. Timur Lenk (1398) invade (too tolerant of their Hindu)


The Center of Aztec Life: Tenochtitlan

  • Food, jewelry mainly traded
  • Significant amount of trade->network, transportation
  • Used canoes and boats for transportation
  • A lot of merchants but under strict control
  • Merchant trade: pochta
religion military
Religion, military…
  • Religious: a lot of sacrifice needed
  • A lot of temples, rituals
  • Military: main purpose->gain slaves for sacrifice
  • Soldiers had a lot of decoration
  • Peasants were in companion in battles

City in S-eastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes Mountain range-capital of the Cusco Region


In the time per. of 600-1450, history of growth and role of Cuzco starts from 1200 as a capital of Inca Empire.

  • Extensive Conquest and Ruling Techniques
  • Starts to form a form of a nations and kingdoms with a variety of cultures
  • Conquered the whole Southern America
  • Unites the whole continent.
  • Integration of Religious and Forceful Authority with Political Control = Using three ways to rule


Machu Picchu Sacsayhuaman Fortress

with precise stone tech

  • Religious growth
  • Emergence of Sun Temples
  • -integrates religion into a way of ruling
  • Infrastructural Growth
  • Unification of roadsand bridges
  • Public Temples and Fortresses
  • 1.Central Force and Authority
  • 2. Firmly sets religious principles that are built on people’s mind
  • 3. Infrastructure

However, b/c of extensive conquest and warfare, Cuzco takes a role of a division of power between the Cuzcos and Kitos (each powers)

jenne jeno
  • Upper inland Niger Delta of the middle Niger
  • Groups from the Serer, Soninke of Mali, moved to Jenne-Jeno
  • Flood plain suited for rice, sorghum, and millet

Important city for trans-Saharan trade

  • Reached the peak between 450-1100CE.

(maximum area of 100 acres in 850 CE)

  • Islamic influences as the climate became dryer
  • Decline 1200-1400CE

-ghost town by 1400CE