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VMware Overview – (What’s New) and Virtual Infrastructure Performance, Capacity Planning, and Monitoring. Jonathan McCormick Feb 12, 2008. Why Virtualization? (Past, Present, Future). Utility Computing via Virtualization. Distributed & Tiered Computing. IT Market Penetration.

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vmware overview what s new and virtual infrastructure performance capacity planning and monitoring

VMware Overview – (What’s New)andVirtual Infrastructure Performance, Capacity Planning, and Monitoring

Jonathan McCormick

Feb 12, 2008

why virtualization past present future
Why Virtualization? (Past, Present, Future)

Utility Computing

via Virtualization

Distributed

& Tiered

Computing

IT Market Penetration

Mainframes

1970s

1980-90s

2009

  • Simple, flexible
  • Economical
  • scalability, availability
  • Scalable, available
  • Expensive, only for a few critical apps
  • Affordable, IT everywhere
  • Sacrificed simplicity, flexibility
virtualization industry standard way of computing
Virtualization: Industry-Standard Way of Computing

Early Adoption

Mainstreaming

Standardization

Infrastructure Management

High Availability

Test &

Development

Server Consolidation

Management & Automation

Virtual Infrastructure

Virtual Infrastructure

Hypervisor

Hypervisor

Hypervisor

1st generation1998 – 2002

2nd generation2003 - 2005

3rd generation2006- 2008

review key features of virtualization
Isolation

Partitioning

Run multiple virtual machines simultaneously on a single server

Each virtual machine is isolated from other virtual machines.

Hardware Independence

Encapsulation

Entire virtual machine is saved in files and can be moved and copied by moving and copying files

Run a virtual machine on any server without modification

REVIEW: Key Features of Virtualization
key benefits of esx hypervisor
Key Benefits of ESX Hypervisor

Other Solutions(Hosted)

VMware ESX(Hypervisor)

  • Performance (20~30%) increase over Hosted
  • Scalability (2x) Memory over subscription
  • Resource Control Direct hardware control
centralized management with virtualcenter
Centralized Management with VirtualCenter
  • Provision and boot virtual machines
  • Monitor system availability and performance
  • Automated notifications and email alerting
  • Integrate SDK with existing management tools
  • Secure the environment with robust access control
physical to virtual migration
Physical to Virtual Migration

Seamlessly transform physical systemsinto Virtual Machines with VMware Converter

strong storage foundation vmfs
Strong Storage Foundation: VMFS

Production proven

  • Clustered capabilities available since 2003
  • Over 20,000 production customers
  • Included in cost of VI3 Standard & Enterprise

Benefits

  • Transparent storage cluster management
  • High performance, optimized for VM access

Far more than file storage

  • Provides locking protocols necessary for robust availability features
    • VMotion, DRS (+ maintenance mode)
    • HA
    • VCB
vmotion technology changes the game
VMotion™ Technology Changes The Game

VMotion lets you move live, running VM’s from one ESX Host to another while maintaining continuous OS and application service availability.

  • Optimize Utilization
  • 24/7 HW Maintenance
  • Better Availability
  • Uses shared storage
  • Needs similar CPUs
resource optimization with vmware drs
Resource optimization with VMware DRS
  • Dynamic and intelligent allocation of hardware resources to ensure optimal alignment between business and IT

What is it?

  • Dynamic balancing of computing resources across resource pools
  • Intelligent resource allocation based on pre-defined rules

Business Impact

  • Align IT resources with business priorities
  • Operational simplicity; dramatically increase system administrator productivity

Business Demand

Resource Pool

ensure high availability with vmware ha
Ensure High availability with VMware HA
  • What is it?
    • Automatic restart of virtual machines in case of server failure
  • Customer Impact
    • Cost effective high availability for all applications
    • No need for dedicated stand-by hardware
    • None of the cost and complexity of clustering

VMware HA enables cost-effective high availability for all applications

X

Resource Pool

vmware consolidated backup
VMWARECONSOLIDATEDBACKUPVMware Consolidated Backup

BACKUP

BACKUP

BACKUP

BACKUP

BACKUP

  • Centralized VM Back-up’s
  • 20-40% better resource utilization
  • Pre-integrated with 3rd party backup products
new enablers for more effective management
New Enablers for More Effective Management

Œ

Guided Consolidation (in VirtualCenter)

Virtual Desktop Manager

Virtualization Platform



DRS with Distributed Power Mgmt

Virtual Infrastructure

ESX Server 3i

Management & Automation

  • Guided server consolidation
  • Integrated virtual desktop management
  • Energy efficient resource management for a green datacenter
  • Next generation thin hypervisor integrated into server hardware for rapid deployment
esx server 3i
ESX Server 3i
    • Compact, 32MB footprint
    • Only architecture with no reliance on a general purpose OS
  • Integration in hardware eliminates installation
  • Intuitive wizard driven start up experience dramatically reduces deployment time
  • Standards-based management of the underlying hardware
  • Server boot to running virtual machines in minutes
  • Simplified management
  • Increased security and reliability
from server boot to running vms in minutes
Power on server and boot into hypervisor

Configure Admin Password

(optional) Modify network configuration

Connect VI Client to IP Address

Or manage with VirtualCenter

3i

From Server Boot to Running VMs in Minutes
enabling the plug and play datacenter
Enabling the ‘Plug-and-Play’ Datacenter
  • Plug: Power on a new server with ESX Server 3i. The new server joins a DRS cluster.
  • Play: All VMs in the cluster are automatically rebalanced taking in consideration the newly available resources.
  • On-demand capacity
  • Easy scalability
traditional esx server
Traditional ESX Server

98%

2%

Agent

Agent

RPM

RHEL3-based

Service Console

Helpers

VMM

VMM

VMM

VMkernel

Storage

Networking

Resource Management

HAL and Device Drivers

2 GB

Disk Footprint:

Disk Footprint:

32 MB

50%

Percent of Patches

esx server 3i thin virtualization
ESX Server 3i: Thin Virtualization!

98%

2%

Agent

Agent

RPM

RHEL3-based

Service Console

Helpers

VMM

VMM

VMM

VMkernel

Storage

Networking

Resource Management

HAL and Device Drivers

2 GB

Disk Footprint:

Disk Footprint:

32 MB

50%

Percent of Patches

distributed power management
Distributed Power Management
  • Consolidates workloads onto fewer servers when the cluster needs fewer resources
  • Places unneeded servers in standby mode
  • Brings servers back online as workload needs increase

Resource Pool

  • Minimizes power consumption while guaranteeing service levels
  • No disruption or downtime to virtual machines

Physical Servers

distributed power management tco savings
DPM Savings calculated for a datacenter with 100 physical servers

$80,300

$63,093

16,800 hrs

13,200 hrs

Assumptions: 50 out of 100 servers can be powered down for 8 hrs/day on weekdays and 16 hrs/day on weekends.

Total power consumption per server ( operating power + cooling power) = 1130.625 watts/hr

Cost of energy = $ 0.0813 per kWH (source: Energy Information Administration)

Distributed Power Management TCO Savings
vmware update manager
OFFLINEVMware Update Manager
  • Automates patch management for ESX Server hosts and select Microsoft and RHEL virtual machines
    • Scans and remedies online as well as offline virtual machines* and online ESX Server hosts
    • Snapshots virtual machines prior to patching and allows rollback to snapshot
  • Eliminates manual tracking of patch levels of ESX Server hosts and virtual machines
  • Automates enforcement of patch standards
  • Reduces risk through snapshots and offline virtual machine patching

Update

Manager

Host

Server

* Note: RHEL guests can only be scanned, not remediated

non disruptive esx server patching with update manager and drs
Update Manager patches entire DRS clusters

Each host in the cluster enters DRS maintenance mode, one at a time

VMs are migrated off, host is patched & rebooted if required

VMs are migrated back on

Next host is selected

Non-disruptive ESX Server Patching with Update Manager and DRS

Update

Manager

VMotion

VMotion

Resource Pool

  • Automates patching of large number of hosts with zero downtime to virtual machines
guided consolidation
Guided Consolidation

DISCOVER

  • Automatically discovers physical servers
  • Analyzes utilization and usage patterns
  • Converts physical servers to VMs placed intelligently based on user response

ANALYZE

  • Lowers training requirements for new virtualization users
  • Steers users through the entire consolidation process

CONVERT

vdi virtual desktop manager vdm
VDI – Virtual Desktop Manager (VDM)

VMware VDM

Centralized Virtual Desktops

  • Enterprise-class, scalable connection broker
  • Central administration and policy enforcement
  • Automatic desktop provisioning with optional “smart pooling”
  • Desktop persistence and secure tunneling options
  • Microsoft AD integration and optional 2-factor authentication via RSA SecurID®

Clients

  • End-to-end enterprise-class desktop control and manageability
  • Familiar end user experience
  • Tightly integrated with VMware’s proven virtualization platform (VI3)
  • Scalability, security and availability suitable for organizations of all sizes
storage vmotion
Storage VMotion
  • Storage independent migration of virtual machine disks
    • Zero downtime to virtual machines
    • LUN independent
    • Supported for Fibre Channel SANs
  • Minimizes planned downtime due to storage
  • Complete planned downtime management solution across servers and storage with VMotion and Storage VMotion
storage vmotion for storage array migration
LUN A1

LUN A2

Array A (off lease)

Storage VMotion for Storage Array Migration

Non disruptively:

  • Refresh to new arrays
  • Migrate to different class of storage
  • VM granularity, LUN Independent

LUN B1

LUN B2

Array B (NEW)

storage vmotion for storage i o optimization
Storage VMotion for Storage I/O Optimization
  • Non-disruptively:
    • Eliminate virtual machine storage I/O bottlenecks
    • Move individual virtual machines to best performing LUNs

Bottleneck Eliminated

I/O Bottleneck

LUN 1

Optimized

Set LUN 2

LUN 2

introducing vmware site recovery manager
Introducing VMware Site Recovery Manager

Site Recovery Manager leverages VMware Infrastructure to transform disaster recovery

  • Simplifies and automates disaster recovery workflows:
    • Setup, testing, failover, failback
  • Provides central management of recovery plans from VirtualCenter
  • Turns manual recovery processes into automated recovery plans
  • Simplifies integration with 3rd-party storage replication
  • Makes disaster recovery rapid, reliable, manageable, affordable
vmware site recovery manager at a glance
Array ReplicationVMware Site Recovery Manager At A Glance

X

Protected Site

Recovery Site

Site Recovery Manager

Site Recovery Manager

VirtualCenter

VirtualCenter

Datastore Groups

Datastore Groups

summary of benefits
Summary of Benefits

Site Recovery Manager Leverages VMware Infrastructure to Make Disaster Recovery

  • Rapid
    • Automate disaster recovery setup, failover, failback, and testing
    • Eliminate complexities of traditional recovery
  • Reliable
    • Ensure proper execution of recovery plan
    • Enable easier, more frequent tests
  • Manageable
    • Centrally manage recovery plans
    • Make plans dynamic to match environment
  • Affordable
    • Utilize recovery site infrastructure
    • Reduce management costs

These features are representative of feature areas under development.  Feature commitments must not be included in contracts, purchase orders, or sales agreements of any kind.  Technical feasibility and market demand will affect final delivery.

industry standard way of computing
VMware Virtual InfrastructureIndustry-Standard Way of Computing

Most effective way to manage IT infrastructure

Mainframe-class reliability and availability

Platform for any OS, hardware, application

…always on…

…infrastructure

The automated…

esx 3 0 architecture
Management

Agents and

Interfaces

Hostd

VMX

VMX

Other

Peripheral I/O

VMM

UserWorlds

POSIX API

VMM

VMkernel

Service Console

Storage Stack

Network Stack

ResourceManagement

Device Drivers

Hardware

ESX 3.0 Architecture
contrast with other architectures
Other Architectures

Large general purpose OS in parent partition or Dom 0 opens security and reliability risks

All I/O driver traffic going thru parent OS is a bottleneck

Virtual

Virtual

Virtual

Virtual

Virtual

Virtual

Machine

Machine

Machine

Machine

Machine

Machine

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

ESX Server 3i

Contrast with Other Architectures

Virtual

Virtual

Virtual

Virtual

General Purpose OS

Dom0 (Linux)

Machine

Machine

Machine

Machine

or

Parent VM

(Windows)

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

Competitive Hypervisors

Xen/Viridian

ESX Server 3i

Ultra small, virtualization centric kernel

Direct driver model optimized for VMs

Management VMs

Remote CLI, CIM, VI API

virtualization overhead sources
Virtualization Overhead Sources
  • Virtualization impacts various system components
    • CPU: Some instructions require special handling
    • Memory: Space for virtualization layer and additional page management tasks
    • Devices: Virtualization layer controls physical devices and shows guest OS standardized view
    • Resource management: Manages allocation of physical resources to VMs
  • Virtualization overhead depends on how workloads use these components
cpu performance
CPU Performance
  • CPU virtualization adds varying amounts of overhead
    • Little or no overhead for the part of the workload that can run in direct execution (CPU Rings 1+)
    • Small to significant overhead for virtualizing sensitive privileged instructions (CPU Ring 0)

done via Binary Translation or CPU offload (VT)

  • Performance reduction vs. increase in CPU utilization
    • CPU-bound applications: any CPU virtualization overhead results in reduced throughput
    • non-CPU-bound applications: should expect similar throughput at higher CPU utilization
cpu performance38
ESX ServerCPU Performance
  • Some multi-threaded apps in a SMP VM may not perform well
  • Use multiple UP VMs on a multi-CPU physical machine
  • ESX Server
cpu performance39
CPU Performance
  • ESX 3 supports four virtual processors per VM
    • Use UP VMs for single-threaded applications
      • Use UP HAL or UP kernel
    • For SMP VMs, configure only as many VCPUs as needed
    • Unused VCPUs in SMP VMs:
      • Impose unnecessary scheduling constraints on ESX Server
      • Waste system resources (idle looping, process migrations, etc.)
memory performance
Memory Performance
  • Page tables
    • ESX cannot use guest page tables
      • ESX Server maintains shadow page tables
      • Translate memory addresses from virtual to machine
      • Per process, per VCPU
    • VMM maintains physical (per VM) to machine maps
    • No overhead from “ordinary” memory references
  • Overhead
    • Page table initialization and updates
    • Guest OS context switching

VA

PA

MA

memory performance41
Memory Performance
  • ESX memory space overhead
    • Service Console: 272 MB (ESX3i = no service console)
    • VMkernel: 100 MB+ (ESX3i = 24MB)
    • Per-VM memory space overhead increases with:
      • Number of VCPUs
      • Size of guest memory
      • 32 or 64 bit guest OS
  • ESX memory space reclamation
    • Page sharing
    • Ballooning
memory performance42
Memory Performance
  • Avoid high active host memory over-commitment
    • Total memory demand = active working sets of all VMs

+ memory overhead

– page sharing

    • No ESX swapping: total memory demand < physical memory
  • Right-size guest memory
    • Define adequate guest memory to avoid guest swapping
    • Per-VM memory space overhead grows with guest memory
networking performance
Networking Performance
  • Check configuration
    • Ensure host NICs are running with intended speed and duplex
    • NIC teaming distributes networking load across multiple NICs
      • Better throughput and allows passive failover
  • Use separate NICs to avoid contention
    • For Console OS (host management traffic), VMKernel (vmotion, iSCSI, NFS traffic), and VM
    • For VMs running heavy networking workloads
  • Tune VM-to-VM networking on same host
    • Use same virtual switch to connect communicating VMs
    • Avoid buffer overflow: Tune receive/transmit buffers (KB 1428)
networking performance44
Networking Performance
  • Ensure adequate CPU resources are available
    • Heavy gigabit networking loads are CPU-intensive
      • Both natively and virtualized
  • Use vmxnet virtual device in guest
    • Default guest vNIC is vlance, but vmxnet performs better
    • For vmxnet driver install tools
    • e1000 is the default for 64-bit guests
install vmware tools
Install VMware Tools
  • vmxnet – high speed networking driver
  • Memory balloon driver
  • Improved graphics – mks, screen resolution
  • Idler program – deschedule Netware guests when idle
  • Timer sponge for correct accounting of time
    • Experimental, manually started
    • www.vmware.com/pdf/vi3_esx_vmdesched.pdf
  • Time Sync – syncs time with the host every minute
    • Manually started (KB 1318)
storage performance
Storage Performance
  • Choose Fibre Channel SAN for best performance
    • Set LUN queue depth appropriately (KB 1267)
  • Networked storage best practices (NFS, iSCSI)
    • Ensure sufficient CPU for software-initiated iSCSI and NFS
    • Avoid link oversubscription
    • Ensure consistent configuration across the full network path
    • Use multiple mount points with multiple VMs
storage performance47
ESX Server

HBA1

HBA2

HBA3

HBA4

Storage array

1

2

3

4

FC Switch

SP1

SP2

Storage Performance
  • Hardware configuration affects storage performance
    • Consult SAN Configuration Guides
    • Ensure caching is enabled
    • Consider tuning layout of LUNs across RAID sets
    • Spread I/O requests across available paths
storage performance48
Storage Performance
  • Creating partitions
    • Use VirtualCenter
      • Align partitions in the guest as well
    • Non-trivial to use command line tools
      • www.vmware.com/pdf/esx3_partition_align.pdf
  • RDM vs. VMFS
    • VMFS has low overhead – reduced complexity
    • RDM has dedicated I/O queue – increased complexity
  • VMFS is a distributed file system
    • Avoid operations that require excessive metadata updates
  • VM Configuration
    • Choose placement of data disks and swap files on LUNs appropriately
      • RAID type, spindles available, concurrent access of LUNs etc.
    • Increase VM’s max outstanding disk requests if needed (KB 1268)
dynamically allocate system resources
Dynamically Allocate System Resources
  • Monitor system resource utilization across hosts
  • Allocate resources intelligently based on rules defined by user
drs global scheduler
D

W

Size depicts High, Normal or Low shares

W

D

W

J

I

J

I

Non-DRS Cluster

DRS Cluster

D

W

D

W

Web server load balanced

across hosts to satisfy

share settings

W

J

I

J

I

DRS – Global Scheduler

W – web server

D – database

J – java app server

I – idle

Host1

Host2

benchmarking guidelines
Benchmarking Guidelines
  • Carefully select benchmarks
    • Represents application
    • Documentation
    • Repeatability
  • Define parameters being measured and their metrics
    • Throughput (MBps), latency (ms)
  • Benchmark a specific system component
    • Monitor specific component metrics
    • Ensure no other component on the system is constrained
    • Or document any such constraint
  • For comparisons, preferably vary single parameter at a time
benchmarking guidelines52
Benchmarking Guidelines
  • Comparing native and virtual machines
    • # of Physical CPUs = # of Virtual CPUs
    • Native Kernel/HAL = VM Kernel/HAL
    • Physical Memory = VM Memory
    • Same bitness (32 or 64) of OS and application
  • Timing within the VM can be inaccurate
    • Especially when the processor is over-committed
    • Use external time source (e.g., the ‘ping’ methodology)
  • Performance tools may not work accurately in a VM
benchmarking guidelines53
Benchmarking Guidelines
  • VMmark: A scalable benchmark for virtualized enterprise systems
    • Provides meaningful measurement of virtualization performance
    • Generates metric that scales with underlying system capacity
    • Used to compare the performance of different hardware and virtualization platforms
    • Employs realistic, diverse workloads running on multiple OSes
      • Mail server: Windows 2003 / MS Exchange 2003 / LoadSim
      • Java server: Windows 2003 / SPECjbb2005
      • Web server: SLES10 / SPECweb2005
      • Database server: SLES10 / MySQL / SysBench
      • File server: SLES10 / DBench
tour quick start home page my assessments
Tour: Quick Start Home Page (My Assessments)
  • Manage Projects from Anywhere
  • Manage Many at one time
  • Create Customer Company Information
    • Enter in just a few details for your benefit
    • Holds Information
tour day 1 installation and setup
Tour: Day 1 – Installation and Setup
  • All-in-one collection
    • Discovery
    • Inventory
    • Performance
  • Agent-less Design
    • Easy Install
    • Remote collection
    • Easy Uninstall
  • Single Day Install
    • Guides the User through the process
    • All the required steps in an appropriate order
    • All steps have a status
    • Leave on automatic
  • Register Collector to Dashboard when Ready
tour monitor collection
Tour: Monitor Collection
  • Monitor Progress
    • Collector Failures
    • Slow Collection
    • Missing Data
  • Snapshot available on Home Page
  • Waiting for Enough Data
    • 10 – 30 Days
    • Depends on Assessment
    • Depends on Volatility of Utilization
tour examine customer environment
Tour: Examine Customer Environment
  • Analyze
    • Preview of Deliverables
      • Shows Processor Utilization
      • Shows System Distribution
    • System Info
    • Run Reports
    • Run Scenarios
  • Create Groups
    • Advanced Workflow
    • Create Consolidation Boundaries
    • May want to try without for opportunities
tour create and deliver the reports
Tour: Create and Deliver the Reports
  • Canned Reports
    • Presales (CE)
    • Consultant (VA)
    • Templates
  • Custom Reports
    • Select Fields
    • Filter Results
    • Export
    • Build Presentation
  • Scenario Results
tour deliverables canned report
Tour: Deliverables - Canned Report
  • Customer Findings
    • Progress Report
    • Executive Summary
    • Server Inventory Overview
    • Charts
    • Server Inventory Detail
    • Virtualization Candidates
  • Final Report
    • Presentation Style
    • CIO Level Summary
    • Server Inventory Overview
    • Consolidation Recommendations
    • Has Summary Answers
tour deliverables analysis summary
Tour: Deliverables - Analysis Summary
  • Used for Comparing “What If”
  • Used for Quick Consolidation Estimation
  • Shows
    • Consolidation Ratios
    • Environmental
  • Vary Scenarios
    • Hardware Configuration
    • Thresholds
    • System Grouping
      • Merge Locations
      • Merge Departments
      • Merge Functions
    • Reuse Hardware
    • Virtualization
  • Templates
    • Reuse your work
tour deliverables analysis details
Tour: Deliverables - Analysis Details
  • Available with a Full CP Assessment or VA
  • Shows
    • Before Environment
    • Exception Systems
    • Reusable Systems
    • Stacking Plan
    • Resulting Utilization
  • Consultant may export this output
    • Change the style
    • Add more value
    • Branding
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