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PRESENTATION ON CHEMISTRY THREE STATES OF MATTER BY MRS. IRUM KHALID LECTURER DA SKBZ COLLEG E . Chemistry The Three States of Matter Gas Liquid Solid. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
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The Three States of MatterBasis of Classification Based upon particle arrangementBased upon energy of particlesBased upon distance between particles
A liquid takes the shape of any container.Example: Pour juice into a glass.
Gas is matter that has no definite shape. Gases take the shape of whatever container they are in.Example: The air all around us is a gas
Particle Movement Examples
Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Solids
Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Liquids
Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Gases
The Kinetic Molecular Theory explains the forces between molecules and the energy that they possess. This theory has 3 basic assumptions.
1.Matter is composed of small particles (molecules). The measure of space that the molecules occupy (volume) is derived from the space in between the molecules and not the space the molecules contain themselves.
2.When the molecules collide with each other, or with the walls of a container, there is no loss of energy.
3.The molecules are in constant motion. This motion is different for the 3 states of matter.
1.The gas consists of very small particles, all with non-zero mass.
2.These molecules are in constant, random motion. The rapidly moving particles constantly collide with the walls of the container.
3.The collisions of gas particles with the walls of the container holding them are perfectly elastic.
4.Except during collisions, the interactions among molecules are negligible (they exert no forces on one another).
5.The total volume of the individual gas molecules added up is negligible compared to the volume of the container. This is equivalent to stating that the average distance separating the gas particles is large compared to their size.
6.The molecules are perfectly spherical in shape, and elastic in nature.
7.The average kinetic energy of the gas particles depends only on the temperature of the system.
The kinetic molecular theory can be used to explain each of the experimentally determined gas laws.
at constant number of moles and temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional.
“Constant number of moles” implies that the number of gas particles remains the same.
“Constant temperature” implies that the average speed of the particles remains the same
If the pressure and volume are inversely proportional, an increase in volume will lead to a decrease in pressure.
at constant number of moles and pressure, the volume and the temperature are directly proportional.
“Constant number of moles” implies that means that the number of gas particles remains the same.
“Constant pressure” implies that the rate at which the particles collide with the wall of the container remains the same.
If volume and temperature are directly proportional, an increase in temperature will lead to an increase in volume.
at constant temperature and pressure, the number of moles of gas and the volume are directly proportional.
“Constant temperature” means that the average speed stays the same.
“Constant pressure” means that the rate at which the particles strike the wall stays the same.
If the number of moles and the volume are directly proportional, an increase in the number of moles will lead to an increase in the volume.
the rate at which a gas diffuses is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.
Graham found that the rates at which gases diffuse is inversely proportional to the square root of their densities.
This relationship eventually became known as Graham's law of diffusion. In other words, the smaller the gas particle the faster it effuses.
The total pressure exerted by gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of each individual component in a gas mixture.
1. Melting - solid to liquid
a. Particles get more kinetic energy and begin rotating around each other.
b. There isn’t enough energy to break the inter-particular attractions, so the particles
c. The energy required to melt a solid is called the heat of fusion. remain close (liquid).
a. Particles lose kinetic energy and slow down.
b. Attractive forces between particles become stronger than the particles’ motion, so the particles begin merely vibrating in place.
c. The amount of heat the particles must lose to turn into a solid is called the heat of fusion.
1) Boiling - rapid; gas bubbles are produced throughout.
2) Evaporation - slow; occurs at the surface.
b. Liquid particles gain enough kinetic energy to overcome forces between the particles and they begin translational motion; this energy is called the heat of vaporization.
a. Particles in a liquid gain kinetic energy.
b. They leave as gas particles (taking the energy away with them).
c. This leaves less energy in the liquid, therefore cooling down what is left.
a. Particles lose kinetic energy, slow down, and come closer.
Inter-particular forces become strong enough to make particles merely rotate around each other.
c. The energy they lose to turn into a liquid is the heat of vaporization.
a. Dry ice - carbon dioxide
7. During phase changes there is no change of temperature.