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Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 9. Energy in Living Systems. Section 1. Chemical Energy. Organisms use and store energy in chemical bonds of organic compounds Almost all energy in organic compounds comes from the sun

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chemical energy
Chemical Energy
  • Organisms use and store energy in chemical bonds of organic compounds
    • Almost all energy in organic compounds comes from the sun
      • Solar energy enters living systems when plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes use sunlight to carry out photosynthesis
chemical energy1
Chemical Energy
  • Photosynthesis: the process by which sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water are used to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
    • Organisms that are able to perform photosynthesis are called autotrophs
chemical energy2
Chemical Energy
  • In order to survive, organisms that cannot make their own food must absorb food molecules made by autotrophs, eat autotrophs, or eat organisms that consume autotrophs
    • These food molecules supply energy for the cells
      • Energy is stored in molecular bonds
metabolism and the carbon cycle
Metabolism and the Carbon Cycle
  • Metabolism involves either using energy to build organic molecules or breaking down organic molecules in which energy is stored
    • Organic molecules contain carbon
      • Therefore, an organism’s metabolism is part of Earth’s carbon cycle
metabolism and the carbon cycle1
Metabolism and the Carbon Cycle
  • Photosynthesis
    • Energy enters an ecosystem when organisms use sunlight during photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into glucose
      • Takes place in the chloroplasts
metabolism and the carbon cycle2
Metabolism and the Carbon Cycle
  • Cellular Respiration
    • Organisms extract energy stored in glucose molecules
      • Through cellular respiration, cells make the carbon in glucose into carbon dioxide molecules and produce energy
metabolism and the carbon cycle3
Metabolism and the Carbon Cycle
  • Cellular respiration
    • Inputs:
      • Glucose
      • Six oxygen molecules
    • Outputs:
      • Six carbon dioxide molecules
      • Six water molecules
      • Energy (ATP, which is the main energy source for all cell processes)
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
transferring energy
Transferring Energy
  • In chemical reactions, energy can be absorbed and released during the breaking and forming of bonds
    • In cells, chemical energy is gradually released in a series of chemical reactions that are assisted by enzymes
      • Enzymes: proteins that act as catalysts in reactions
transferring energy1
Transferring Energy
  • ATP
    • When cells break down food molecules, some of the energy in the molecules is released as heat
      • Cells use much of the remaining energy to make ATP
    • Used to power chemical reactions
    • Portable form of energy
    • Can be made in one place and used in another
    • Nucleotide made up of a chain of three phosphate groups
transferring energy2
Transferring Energy
  • ATP Synthase
    • An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP
    • ATP synthase recycles ADP by bonding a third phosphate group to the molecule
    • Acts as a carrier protein and an enzyme for hydrogen ions
transferring energy3
Transferring Energy
  • Hydrogen Ion Pump
    • Electron transport chain: a series of molecules is the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
      • Allows electrons to drop in energy as they are passed along and uses the energy released to pump H+ ions out of a mitochondrion’s inner compartment
  • Plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes capture about 1% of the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth and convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis provides energy from almost all life
harvesting light energy
Harvesting Light Energy
  • The cells of many photosynthetic organisms have chloroplasts
    • Chloroplasts convert light energy into chemical energy
harvesting light energy1
Harvesting Light Energy
  • Chloroplasts
    • Have an outer membrane and an inner membrane
      • Inner membrane is highly selective
      • Both allow light to pass through
    • Stroma: space inside the inner membrane
      • Inside the stroma are thylakoid membranes
        • Folded to produce flat, disc-like sacs called thylakoids
          • Thylakoids arranged in stacks
            • Photosynthesis starts when light hits these stacks
          • Thylakoids contain molecules that absorb light energy
harvesting energy
Harvesting Energy
  • Electromagnetic radiation
    • Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation
      • A form of energy that can travel through empty space in the form of waves
    • Different wavelengths correspond to a certain amount of energy
    • Sunlight contains all wavelengths of visible light
harvesting energy1
Harvesting Energy
  • Pigments
    • Pigment: a substance that absorbs certain wavelengths (colors) of light and commonly reflects all of the others
      • In plants, light energy is harvested by pigments that are located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
    • Chlorophyll: a green pigment that absorbs light energy to start photosynthesis
      • Absorbs mostly red and blue light and reflects green and yellow
harvesting energy2
Harvesting Energy
  • Pigments
    • Plants have two types of chlorophyll:
      • Chlorophyll a
      • Chlorophyll b
    • Plants also have carotenoids
      • Reflect yellow, orange, and red light
  • Why do leaves change color in the fall?
    • Chlorophyll fades away, so the carotenoids are exposed
harvesting light energy2
Harvesting Light Energy
  • Electron carriers
    • When light hits a thylakoid, energy is absorbed by many pigment molecules
      • They funnel the energy to the reaction center (a special chlorophyll molecule)
        • Energy causes electrons to become “excited” and move to a higher energy level; they are transferred down the chain to an electron carrier
two electron transport chains
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • The electron carrier transfers the electrons to the first of two electron transport chains in the thylakoid membrane
    • During photosynthesis, one electron transport chain provides energy to make ATP, while the other provides energy to make NADPH
two electron transport chains1
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Producing ATP
    • In mitochondria, electron transport chains pump H+ ions through a membrane, which produces a concentration gradient
      • Also happens in chloroplasts
two electron transport chains2
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Step 1: Water Splitting
  • Step 2: Hydrogen Ion Pump
  • Step 3: ATP Synthase
  • Step 4: Reenergizing
  • Step 5: Making NADPH
two electron transport chains3
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Step 1: Water Splitting
    • Excited electrons that leave the chlorophyll have to be replaced by other electrons
      • Replaced from H2O
    • Water is split by an enzyme
      • H+ ions and O2 molecules produced
two electron transport chains4
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Step 2: Hydrogen Ion Pumps
    • Protein acts as a membrane pump
    • Excited electrons transfer some energy to pump H+ ions into the thylakoid
      • Creates a concentration gradient
two electron transport chains5
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Step 3: ATP Synthase
    • The energy from the diffusion of H+ ions through the carrier protein is used to make ATP
    • As hydrogen ions pass through the channel portion of the protein, ATP synthase catalyzes a reaction in which a phosphate group is added to a molecule of ADP
      • Results in ATP
two electron transport chains6
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Producing NADPH
    • While one electron transport chain provides energy to make ATP, a second electron transport chain receives excited electrons from a chlorophyll molecule and uses them to make NADPH
two electron transport chains7
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Step 4: Reenergizing
    • In this second chain, light excites electrons in the chlorophyll molecule
      • The electrons are passed to the second electron transport chain
two electron transport chains8
Two Electron Transport Chains
  • Step 5: Making NADPH
    • Excited electrons combine with H+ ions and NADP+ (an electron acceptor)
      • Both NADPH and the ATP made during the first stage of photosynthesis will be used to provide the energy to carry out the final stage of photosynthesis
producing sugar
Producing Sugar
  • The first two stages of photosynthesis depend directly on light because light energy is used to make ATP and NADPH
    • In the first stage of photosynthesis, ATP and NADPH are used to produce energy-storing sugar molecules from the carbon in carbon dioxide
      • The use of carbon dioxide is called carbon fixing
producing sugar1
Producing Sugar
  • The reactions that fix carbon dioxide are light-independent reactions
    • Sometimes called dark reactions
  • Several ways in which carbon dioxide is fixed
    • Most common method is the Calvin Cycle
producing sugar2
Producing Sugar
  • Calvin Cycle
    • Carbon Fixation
      • In CO2 fixation, an enzyme adds a molecule of CO2 to a 5-carbon compound
        • Occurs three times to yield three 6-carbon molecules
    • Transferring Energy
      • Each 6-carbon compound splits into two 3-carbon compounds
      • Phosphate groups from ATP and electrons from NADPH are added to the compounds to form higher energy 3-carbon compounds
producing sugar3
Producing Sugar
  • Making Sugar
    • One of the 3-carbon sugars leaves the Calvin Cycle and is used to make organic compounds
  • Recycling
    • The remaining five 3-carbon sugars are rearranged
    • Using the energy from ATP, enzymes reform three molecules of the initial 5-carbon compound
      • Completes the cycle
factors that affect photosynthesis
Factors that Affect Photosynthesis
  • Light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature are three environmental factors that affect photosynthesis
    • The rate of photosynthesis increases and light intensity increases until all chlorophyll molecules are being used, which causes the process to level off
    • The concentration of CO2 affects the rate of photosynthesis in the same way as light intensity
    • Unfavorable temperatures may inactivate certain enzymes so reactions don’t take place
  • The primary fuel for cellular respiration is glucose
    • Formed when carbs are broken down
  • Proteins and nucleic acids can also be used to make ATP
steps of glycolysis
Steps of Glycolysis
  • In the first stage of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm by glycolysis
    • Glycolysis: enzymes break down one 6-carbon molecule of glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules
steps of glycolysis1
Steps of Glycolysis
  • Breaking Down Glucose
    • Two ATP molecules are used to break glucose into two smaller units
    • A phosphate group from ATP is added to the 6-carbon compound
      • breaks into two 3-carbon sugars
steps of glycolysis2
Steps of Glycolysis
  • NADH Production
    • Each 3-carbon compound reacts with another phosphate group (not from ATP)
    • Hydrogen atoms are transferred to two molecules of NAD+
      • Produces two molecules of NADH
steps of glycolysis3
Steps of Glycolysis
  • Pyruvate Production
    • Each 3-carbon sugar is converted into a 3-cadrbon molecule of pyruvate
      • Produces 4 ATP molecules
        • The breaking of a sugar molecule by glycolysis results in a net gain of two ATP molecules
  • Glycolysis is the only source of energy for some prokaryotes
    • Glycolysis is anaerobic (doesn’t require oxygen)
      • Aerobic: requires oxygen
  • In aerobic respiration, the pyruvate product of glycolysis undergoes another series of reactions to produce more ATP molecules
aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
  • Organisms can use oxygen to produce ATP efficiently through aerobic respiration
    • Pyruvate is broken down in the Krebs cycle
      • Krebs cycle: a series of reactions that produce electron carriers
        • Electron carriers enter an electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthase
  • Up to 34 ATP molecules can be produced from one glucose molecule in aerobic respiration
krebs cycle
Krebs Cycle
  • Begins with pyruvate (produced during glycolysis)
  • Pyruvate releases a CO2 molecule to form a 2-carbon compound
    • An enzyme attaches this 2-carbon compound to a 4-carbon compound and forms a 6-carbon compound
krebs cycle1
Krebs Cycle
  • The 6-carbon compound releases 1 CO2 molecule, and then another
    • Energy is released, and forms NADH
  • The 4-carbon molecule is converted to the 4-carbon compound that began the cycle
    • And the cycle starts over again
krebs cycle2
Krebs Cycle
  • Products of the Krebs Cycle
    • 1 ATP
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2
  • Electron carriers transfer energy through the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthase
electron transport chain1
Electron Transport Chain
  • Second stage of aerobic respiration
  • Takes place in the inner membranes of the mitochondria
electron transport chain2
Electron Transport Chain
  • Electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 pass through the chain
    • Energy is transferred
  • Energy is used to transport hydrogen ions out of the inner mitochondrial compartment
    • Concentration gradient across the inner membrane is created
  • Hydrogen ions diffuse through ATP synthase
    • Energy is produced, which is used to make ATP from ADP
  • Oxygen combines with the electrons and two hydrogen ions to form two water molecules
    • Essential that oxygen is present!! If not, the chain stops
  • Many prokaryotes live entirely on the energy released in glycolysis
    • Glycolysis produces two ATP molecules and one NADH
      • NADH must be able to transfer its electrons so that NAD+ is continuously available
  • If in anaerobic conditions, the electron transport chain won’t work
    • So organisms need another way to make NAD+
  • Fermentation: the process of breaking down carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen
    • Recycles NAD+ that is needed to keep making ATP through glycolysis
  • Two types:
    • Lactic acid fermentation
    • Alcoholic fermentation
  • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • End products of glycolysis are three-carbon pyruvate molecules
    • Pyruvate is converted into lactic acid through lactic acid fermentation
      • Occurs in the muscles of animals
    • During heavy exercise, muscle cells must operate without oxygen
      • Glycolysis becomes the only source of ATP
      • NAD+ has to be recycled through lactic acid fermentation in order for glycolysis to continue
  • Lactic Acid fermentation
    • During heavy exercise, muscle cells must operate without oxygen
      • Glycolysis becomes the only source of ATP
      • NAD+ has to be recycled through lactic acid fermentation in order for glycolysis to continue
  • Alcoholic Fermentation
    • An enzyme removes CO2 from the three-carbon pyruvate to form a two-carbon molecule
      • Then, a second enzyme adds electrons and hydrogen from NADH to the molecule to form ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
        • Called alcoholic fermentation
    • NAD+ is recycled and glycolysis can continue
  • Efficiency of Cellular Respiration
    • The total amount of ATP that a cell can use from each glucose depends on whether oxygen is present or not
    • Glycolysis: produces 2 ATP
      • Anaerobic processes: recycles NAD+ to continue forming ATP
      • Aerobic processes: can produce up to 34 ATP molecules
  • Efficiency of Cellular Respiration
    • Cells are most efficient when oxygen is present because they make most of their ATP during aerobic respiration
      • For each molecule of glucose, two ATP can be produced