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Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Assessing Work Efficiency in Librar i es. LIBRARIES IN THE DIGITAL AGE (LIDA) 2014, 16 - 20 June, Zadar Kate-Riin Kont. For a long time the management of libraries did not pay attention to such areas of librarianship as t he

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using qualitative and quantitative methods in assessing work efficiency in librar i es

Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Assessing Work Efficiency inLibraries


16 - 20 June, Zadar

Kate-Riin Kont

For a long time the management of libraries did not

pay attention to such areas of librarianship asthe

development of the effective management of book

collections, classification, cataloguing, and the like.

This inattention was not important becauseofthe

small size of collections, staff, buildings, and

clienteles made for simplicity of operation and

demanded not verysophisticated approach to the

ways of doing things (Coney, 1952, p. 83).

why assess the work efficiency in libraries
Why assess the work efficiency in libraries?

At the end of 19th century, at the beginning of

20th century, many libraries were identified as

being large enough to apply the ideas of

scientific management and cost accounting.

Librarians in these libraries were interested in

achieving maximum efficiency at minimum


cost accounting
Cost accounting

Cost accounting, as defined in the Encyclopedia

Britannica, is:

“a system of accounting designed to show the

actual cost of each separate article produced or

service rendered” (Rider, 1936, p. 332).

Cost accounting is in essence the process of tracking,

recording and analysing costs associated with the

activity of an organization.

Through cost accounting, output indicators are

incorporated into the financial system(Doore Van, et al,

2010, p. 40).

history of cost accounting research in libraries

The early studies and reports of the results of the

librarycost accounting (e.g. Cutter, 1877; Whitney,

1885; Bishop, 1905) indicate mainreasons why cost

accounting reached libraries:

  • critics seemed to think that investment in the cataloguing system was a total loss;
  • library managers neededto justify their catalogingcosts to the public as well as to their parent organizations;
  • the work which did not seem to involve costs in the eyes of the public had to be justified too.
time and motion study
Time and motion study

Formal motion and time study, goes somewhat beyond

the concept of work simplification and streamlining of

processes. R. M. Barnes lists four distinct parts to the

process, namely,

  • finding the most economical way of doing the job,
  • standardizing the methods, materials, and equipment,
  • determining accurately the time required by a qualified person working at a normal pace to do the task, and
  • assisting in training the worker in the new method (Barnes, 1949, pp. 1-4).
library staff performance studies
Library staff performance studies

Both cost accountingas well as time and motion

studies(e.g.Baldwin & Marcus, 1941; Battles et al,

1943; Hardkopf, 1949; Pierce, 1949) have been

applied for better library service, lower cost, or

both. Throughout history they have been closely

related to the identification of library staff


  • effectiveness,
  • efficiency and
  • productivity.
library staff performance studies1
Library staff performance studies

Costaccountingaswellas time and motion studies in libraries

deal with:

  • the performance of individual worker,
  • worksimplification,
  • salarystandardization,
  • determination of the standards of performance for specific library operations,
  • improvementofworkingconditions (inregardtolight, noise, fatigue),
  • systematicin-servicetraining,
  • employeeturnover,
  • careful definition and assignment of work in each department.
activity based costing
Activity-based costing

Activity-Based Costing (ABC) was designed in the

UnitedStates during the 80’s by Cooper and Kaplan

There is a four-step approach to implement the ABC

system (Cooper & Kaplan 1988):

  • identify the key activities and relevant cost drivers,
  • allocate staff time to activities,
  • attribute staff salaries and other costs to activity cost pools,
  • determine the cost per cost driver.
activity based costing studies
Activity-based costing studies

The testing and implementation of the ABC is already

very common in university libraries around the world

(Goddard & Ooi, 1998; Ceynowa, 2000; Poll, 2001; Ellis-

Newman, 2003; Heaney, 2004; Ching & Leung, 2008).

Many library managers have decided that activity based

costing method is the best of existing cost analysis

method adapted for evaluating library products.

time driven activity based costing
Time-driven activity-based costing

Time-drivenactivity-basedcosting (TDABC) was

designed as revised and easier version of ABC by Kaplan

and Anderson at the beginning of 21st century (Kaplan &

Anderson, 2004; Kaplan & Anderson, 2007).

Inthe TDABC model only two parameters are required:

  • the number of time units (e.g. minutes) consumed by the activities related to the cost objects (the activities the organization performs for products, services, and customers) and
  • the cost per time unit.
tdabc studies in libraries
TDABC studies in libraries

* Pernot, E., F. Roodhooft, and A. Van den Abbeele. „Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing For Interlibrary Services: A Case Study in A University.“ The Journal of Academic Librarianship33.5 (2007): 551- 560.

* Stouthuysen, K., M. Swiggers, A-M. Reheul and F. Roodhooft. “Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for a Library Acquisition Process: A Case Study in a Belgian University.” Library Collections, Acquisitions, and Technical Services 34.2-3 (2010): 83-91.

* Siguenza-Guzman, L., A. Van den Abbeele, J. Vandewalle, H. Verhaaren, D. Cattrysse (2013). „Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing To Support Library Management Decisions: A case Study For Lending And Returning Processes.“ Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy 84.1 (2014): 76-93.

* Siguenza-Guzman, L., A. Van den Abbeele, D. Cattrysse (2014). „Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing Systems for Cataloguing Processes: A Case Study.“ Liber Quarterly 23.3 (2014): 160–186.

research methods
Research methods


combinedbothqualitative and quantitativemethods,


  • analysisofstatisticaldata (e.g. collecting all typesofaccountingdataaboutthecoststhatoccurintheproductionoflibraryservices),
  • documents (e.g. jobdescriptions),
  • timesheets and timediaries,
  • observations,
  • interviewsand/or
  • questionnaires.
research methods1
Research methods

Specific time studies of personnel activity will give the

most precise data about the actual tasks performed:

  • The self-administered diary method is most often

employed in historical library cost accounting studies for determining labor costs (Rider 1936, Miller 1937).

  • Time sheets are another very common method for costing purposes (Chargeable and non-chargeable time!!!).
  • In 1970s, the methods such as random time sampling with self-observation and interviewing staff with closed questions were added for library cost accounting studies (Spencer 1971, Masterson 1976).
research methods2
Research methods

For library activities, identification and

definitions, the direct observations,

systematic sampling process and the open

interviews without the structured

questionnaire are the part of new cost

accounting models studied in academic

libraries (Pernot et al 2007; Stouthuysen et al



All library activities are intellectual activitieswhich

demand knowledge, judgement, and initiative.

Reichmann’s (1953) has argued that “librarians, but

especially when they are dealing with acquisition and

cataloguing or even with bibliographical describing,

should have freedom to decide how much time can be

spent on the cataloguing or describing of one title, or

that the concern is with quality alone not with the

quantity of output.” (Reichmann, 1953, p. 310).

  • * No method of measurement can not give all answers and the final truth. There are intangible factors in the library work that no measurementmethod can ever reach.
  • * In and of itself no cost system can cut costs. All it can do is to show the administrator where costs may, and should, be cut.
  • * TDABC seems to be one of the best tools for understanding cost behavior and for refining a cost system for university libraries.
  • * While integrating the TDABC method with the analysis of library performance indicators, the more valuable data is possible to produce for managerial decisions.