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Writing the Report. http://www.google.com/events/sciencefair/winners.html. https://sites.google.com/site/ampkandcisplatinresistance/introduction Report sample. BACKGROUND.

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**Writing the Report**http://www.google.com/events/sciencefair/winners.html https://sites.google.com/site/ampkandcisplatinresistance/introduction Report sample**In multicellular organisms (humans, for example),**specialized organs and systems are used to exchange the gases in respiration with the external environment. The function of the respiratory system is to take oxygen (O2) into the body and to release carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) from the body. The presence of carbon dioxide can be detected with the testing solution bromthymol blue. A change of color in this solution indicates the presence of carbon dioxide. In this investigation, you will learn how to detect the presence of carbon dioxide with bromthymol blue. You will see that people produce carbon dioxide while breathing. You will also discover the effect that exercise has on the amount of carbon dioxide produced. Background This section introduces the topic of the project, notes any information already available, explains why you are interested in the project, and states the purpose of the project. The BTB Lab • Why was this study performed? • What knowledge already exists about this subject? • What is the specific purpose of the study?**WORK**A force acting through a distance Work = Force x Distance**FORCE**DISTANCE Work = force x distance W = F d Work = F (N) x D (m) = Newton-meter or joule (J)**Work**http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_N0r1ignq1w**WORK**A force acting through a distance Work = Force x Distance**Do you do more work going straight up a mountain or taking**the longer scenic route around to the top? Work = Force (N) x D (m) or W= Fd Work Lab B A “Kennon or Marcos Road?"**Research Question/Aim**• To investigate the effect of distance on the force, and ultimately, the amount of work done. In the case of choosing between two routes to the top of a mountain, is there more work done going straight up the mountain or taking the long scenic route around to the top?**Based on the data table:**1) What do we need to change? 2) What do we need to measure as our result?**Method**• Gather and prepare materials. • Calibrate Newton-Meter to 0 joules. • Use a meter stick to measure 0.5 meters on the ramp and mark this with a piece of tape. Repeat in 0.1 meter increments until all lengths between 0.5 and 1.0 meters are marked (6 total marks). • Adjust the ramp so that the 1.0 meter mark is level with the top of the stool. A wedge or someone’s foot may need to be used at the bottom of the ramp to keep it from sliding. • Attach Newton-Spring to car by connecting the hook of the Newton-spring with the hole located at the back of the car. • Pull the Newton-Meter carefully so that it carries the car up to the distance mark. • Record the amount of Newtons. • Repeat Steps 5- 7 for Trial 2 and 3. • Repeat Steps 5-8 for each of the remaining distances (0.9,0.8,0.7,0.6, and 0.5 meters), making sure to line the marker for each distance with the top of the stool.**Conclusion/Summary:**• Answer the aim- was it more work to go straight up • or to take the long road? • -was the hypothesis right or wrong • -Use data (#’s) to support why hypothesis is right or wrong • - your group data and 8th grade combined class data • 2.Explain your results. What is the relationship between work of A (straight up) and work of B (long route)? • - use the formula W = F x d (use force #’s from your group data) • - think about relationship between work and PE (and formula for PE = m x g x h) All claims/statements in the conclusion need to be supported by actual evidence (real numbers) from the experiment.**BIG IDEA:**Evaluation is very important to determine whether the experiment is a FAIR TEST-did your group get the correct answer? • It doesn’t matter how many errors there are: • There may be several minor errors but overall result remains unchanged= FAIR • There may be a single error only but may have greatly affected the final • result = UNFAIR**BIG IDEA:**• Going over the • checklist allows you to • check whether you • have missed something • You have time to make • necessary changes**Background**• You see two routes to the top of a mountain. One is a road that goes straight up and another is a path that goes around the mountain. • What takes more work, a shorter route with a steeper incline, or a longer route with a gradual incline? • Energy is the ability to do work. When work is done, potential energy can be increased and potential energy is related to an object’s position or height. • From the field of physics, we also know that the formula is: work=force x distance. The units for work are Joules. • Is the force same or different for the level of incline? • In this investigation, you will learn if the force and work used for different distances are the same or not.**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for okay, minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Variables**• Independent Variable- Incline/Distance • Dependent Variable-Amount of Work (Force) • Constant/Controlled Variables... -Height of bar -Ramp Set -Newton-spring used -Mass of Car • Steady speed for how the car is pulled • Way tape is lined up with the bar/stool**How will variables the be changed, measured or controlled?**• The independent variable will be changed by using different distances. (0.5 meters, 0.6 meters… and 1.0 meter are the different distances in the ramp where the car goes up.) • The amount of work will be measured by calculating the force (Newtons)* the distance (meters). We will measure the force by attaching a Newton-spring to the toy car and pulling it up towards the desired distance. • The car used in the experiment should be the same because if there are different cars, they could have different mass or ability to roll • The height of the ramp should be equal too because it can give different results. • Also, the Newton-meter should be calibrated at 0 Newtons.**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for okay, minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Hypothesis (Qualitative)**• If the distance increases, • then all of the amount of force exerted and work will be less • because even though there is a long distance, the incline is not as steep and so gravity isn’t pulling as strong on the car.**Hypothesis (Quantitative)**5 J>3 J Therefore, the amount of work is more for Route A (straight up) compared to Route B (long way). Force(A)>Force(B)**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for okay, minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for good, maybe some minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Materials**• 1 Ramp • 1 stool/ stand • 1 Newton-spring • 1 Toy Car • 1 meter stick • 1 Roll of tape • 1 marker • Opt’l: 1 wedge**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for good, maybe some minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Method**• Gather and prepare materials. • Calibrate Newton-Meter to 0 joules. • Use a meter stick to measure 0.5 meters on the ramp and mark this with a piece of tape. Repeat in 0.1 meter increments until all lengths between 0.5 and 1.0 meters are marked (6 total marks). • Adjust the ramp so that the 1.0 meter mark is level with the top of the stool. A wedge or someone’s foot may need to be used at the bottom of the ramp to keep it from sliding. • Attach Newton-Spring to car by connecting the hook of the Newton-spring with the hole located at the back of the car. • Pull the Newton-Meter carefully so that it carries the car up to the distance mark. • Record the amount of Newtons. • Repeat Steps 5- 7 for Trial 2 and 3. • Repeat Steps 5-8 for each of the remaining distances (0.9,0.8,0.7,0.6, and 0.5 meters), making sure to line the marker for each distance with the top of the stool. • Calculate the average for force and then calculate work done for each distance.**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for good, maybe some minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Data Table**N*m or J**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for good, maybe some minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Summary of Observations**• Results show that the work done for Route A and B are different with 0.2 joules of work done more with Route B than A. Work for the other distances are similar with 0.6 meters and 0.9 meters both using 2.3 joules of work done. 0.7 and 0.8 used 2.4 and 2.5 joules, accordingly.**Conclusion (Aim)**In the case of choosing between two routes to the top of a mountain, the work done going straight up (Route A) the mountain and taking the long scenic route around (route B) to the top: • it is difficult to tell whether the work is the same or not from the results given by individual groups; • however, from the combined results, it becomes clearer that both routes take the same amount of work. • For example, our group results had a difference of 0.1 J between Route A and B, with Route A using 2.2 J of work and Route B using 2.3 J of work. However, the class average results only had a difference of 0.02 between Route A and B, with both routes taking about 2.2 J of work.**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for good, maybe some minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Explaining the Science (Work Lab):**• When comparing work done (A:straight up or B: longer), the amount of work done does not change • Even though the force and the distance change, they cancel each other out. • Shorter distance required more force, W = f x d • Longer distance required less force, W= f x d Force(A)=Force(B) 5=5 Therefore, the amount of work is same for Route A and B.**So why differences in force?**• Shorter distance=STEEPER slope (almost straight up) • MORE effort (force) directly against gravity • Longer distance = less steep slope • LESS effort (force) directly against gravity**Explaining the Science (Work Lab)**Option 2: • Also Work = PE = m x g x h. • In the case of this experiment: • the mass was the same because the same car was used, • Acceleration due to gravity is a constant so it was the same, • and height was also the same- the top of the mountain/ramp did not change. • Therefore, the PE and thus the amount of Work, is the same.**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for good, maybe some minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**BIG IDEA:**Evaluation is very important to determine whether the experiment is a FAIR TEST-did your group get the correct answer? • It doesn’t matter how many errors there are: • There may be several minor errors but overall result remains unchanged= FAIR • There may be a single error only but may have greatly affected the final • result = UNFAIR**Evaluation**These errors might have altered the final outcome slightly, but we could still determine the correct outcome of the experiment. I think that the experiment was still a fair test even though there were some minor mistakes.**+ for excellent, perfect, thorough**√ for good, maybe some minor mistake - for missing many things or many mistakes**Practice calculations**• Which is more work? • Pushing against a building that doesn’t move with 1000 N of force OR • Pushing against a table with 100 N of force and making it move 3 meters • Which one feels like more work?**SUMMARY OF IDEAS(Work):**• Do not confuse getting tired with doing work. • You can get tired even when not doing work. • -If there is no movement from point a to point b, there is no work • -External work (physics) vs. • -Internal work (the effort in your body= biology) • -example: holding a book for a long time

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