INDUSTRIALIZATION. CHAPTER 25. Section 1: The Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. In the 1700s the Agrarian Revolution was helped along by… An expansion of farmland Good weather Improved transportation New crops
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INDUSTRIALIZATION CHAPTER 25
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • In the 1700s the Agrarian Revolution was helped along by… • An expansion of farmland • Good weather • Improved transportation • New crops • As a result the food supply went up, the population grew, and people could buy things with their money besides food.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • Factors leading to the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain included… • A large labor force available • Capital (money) to invest in machines and factories. • Abundant natural resources like coal and iron ore. • Many rivers for water power and transportation of goods. • A growing market at home (large population to buy manufactured goods)
Iron Ore Coal
Changes in Cotton Production • Began as Cottage Industry (work done in people’s homes). • New textile machines like the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, and the water loom moved production into factories near water. • The invention of the steam engine replaced the use of water power. • Soon cotton was processed mainly in factories and was sold all over the world.
Water Power STEAM ENGINE
New Inventions Spinning Jenny Flying Shuttle Water Loom
Coal and Iron Industries • The need for coal to fuel steam engines and iron for machines created jobs in the coal and iron mines. • Soon the steam engine was used for steam boats and locomotives.
Railroads • In 1804 the first steam locomotive ran on an industrial line in England. • Soon locomotives were faster and able to carry heavier loads. • Britain laid down more and more tracks helping to drive the industrial revolution.
The New Factories • Steam powered machines could run constantly so people worked in shifts so factories could produce goods 24/7.
The Spread of Industrialization • By the mid-1800s Great Britain had become the world’s first and richest industrial nation. • They produced the half the world’s coal and manufactured goods at that time. • Soon the Industrial Revolution spread though Europe as governments encouraged industrialization by building roads, canals, and railroads.
Social Impact in Europe • Thousands of people moved to the cities for jobs (urbanization). • Two new social classes emerged • The middle class (Skilled workers, professionals, business people, and factory owners) • The working class (factory workers)
The Working Class • Two-thirds of factory workers were women and children. • Working conditions • 12-16 hour work days • 6 day work weeks • No minimum wage or job security • Dangerous and dirty factories and mines. • The Factory Act of 1833 fixed many of these conditions and more women workers were hired to replace children. (women paid half as much as men)
Early Socialism • The social conditions of the Industrial Revolution created early socialism. • Socialism – a system in which the government owns and controls means of production such as factories and utilities (e.g. water and electricity).
Section 2 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
The Second Industrial Revolution • The primary change from the First Industrial Revolution was the change from iron to steel. • Steel was used to build lighter, smaller, and faster machines and engines. • Railways, ships, skyscrapers, and weapons were also made using steel.
Electricity • Electricity became a major new form of energy that could be used to heat, light and drive motion. • Its use led to the light bulb, the telephone, the radio and many other inventions.
Internal Combustion • The internal combustion engine was invented and used in liners, airplanes and the automobile.
New Patterns • Faster production and transportation lowered the cost of goods which helped factory workers in Europe afford the goods they were making. • Also a world economy developed because of the increased speed at which goods could be moved. • The standard of living improved for industrialized countries but some parts of Europe including Russia still had agriculture based economies and remained poor.
Responses to Industrialization • As more factories opened and factory owners continued to exploit workers the idea of socialism began to spread to improve the quality of life for workers. • In 1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote “The Communist Manifesto” which blamed poor labor conditions on capitalism and proposed a new social system of command economies that would become known as communism.
Class Struggles • Marx believed that the middle class, called the bourgeoisie used government to oppress the lower class, called the proletariat.
Socialist Ideas • Political parties developed across Europe based on Marxist ideas including the German Social Democrat Party. • Some socialist movements called for revolution to overthrow capitalist economic systems while others worked within the current system to effect change. • Trade unions formed in England where they were allowed to strike in order to pressure factory owners to meet their demands.
Section 3 The Emergence of Mass Society
The New Urban Environment • The growing number of factories brought more people to the cities (urbanization) in search of work. • By 1890 60 percent of people in England lived in the cities.
Social Structure of Mass Society • The Elite • 5% of the population • Controlled 40% of wealth • The Working Class • 80% of the population • 55 million immigrated to the United States, Brazil, and Argentina looking for work.
The Experiences of Women • Higher paying factory jobs for men allowed working class women to stay at home and care for their children. • Increased use of birth control meant families had less children allowing for a little more leisure time for mothers.
Women’s Rights Movement • The Feminism movement grew with the enlightenment. • Women began to argue that they should enjoy the same rights as men. • Women gained the right to own property in England in 1870. Around the same time some women began to enter universities.
Universal Education • During the Industrial Revolution education went from being for the elite only to being for everyone between the age of six and 12.