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INDUSTRIALIZATION. CHAPTER 25. Section 1: The Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. In the 1700s the Agrarian Revolution was helped along by… An expansion of farmland Good weather Improved transportation New crops

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    2. Section 1: The Industrial Revolution

    3. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • In the 1700s the Agrarian Revolution was helped along by… • An expansion of farmland • Good weather • Improved transportation • New crops • As a result the food supply went up, the population grew, and people could buy things with their money besides food.

    4. Crop Rotation

    5. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • Factors leading to the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain included… • A large labor force available • Capital (money) to invest in machines and factories. • Abundant natural resources like coal and iron ore. • Many rivers for water power and transportation of goods. • A growing market at home (large population to buy manufactured goods)

    6. Iron Ore Coal

    7. Changes in Cotton Production • Began as Cottage Industry (work done in people’s homes). • New textile machines like the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, and the water loom moved production into factories near water. • The invention of the steam engine replaced the use of water power. • Soon cotton was processed mainly in factories and was sold all over the world.

    8. Water Power STEAM ENGINE

    9. New Inventions Spinning Jenny Flying Shuttle Water Loom

    10. Coal and Iron Industries • The need for coal to fuel steam engines and iron for machines created jobs in the coal and iron mines. • Soon the steam engine was used for steam boats and locomotives.

    11. Coal Mine Workers

    12. Railroads • In 1804 the first steam locomotive ran on an industrial line in England. • Soon locomotives were faster and able to carry heavier loads. • Britain laid down more and more tracks helping to drive the industrial revolution.

    13. The New Factories • Steam powered machines could run constantly so people worked in shifts so factories could produce goods 24/7.

    14. The Spread of Industrialization • By the mid-1800s Great Britain had become the world’s first and richest industrial nation. • They produced the half the world’s coal and manufactured goods at that time. • Soon the Industrial Revolution spread though Europe as governments encouraged industrialization by building roads, canals, and railroads.

    15. Social Impact in Europe • Thousands of people moved to the cities for jobs (urbanization). • Two new social classes emerged • The middle class (Skilled workers, professionals, business people, and factory owners) • The working class (factory workers)

    16. Urbanization

    17. The Working Class • Two-thirds of factory workers were women and children. • Working conditions • 12-16 hour work days • 6 day work weeks • No minimum wage or job security • Dangerous and dirty factories and mines. • The Factory Act of 1833 fixed many of these conditions and more women workers were hired to replace children. (women paid half as much as men)

    18. Early Socialism • The social conditions of the Industrial Revolution created early socialism. • Socialism – a system in which the government owns and controls means of production such as factories and utilities (e.g. water and electricity).

    19. Section 2 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity

    20. The Second Industrial Revolution • The primary change from the First Industrial Revolution was the change from iron to steel. • Steel was used to build lighter, smaller, and faster machines and engines. • Railways, ships, skyscrapers, and weapons were also made using steel.

    21. Electricity • Electricity became a major new form of energy that could be used to heat, light and drive motion. • Its use led to the light bulb, the telephone, the radio and many other inventions.

    22. Internal Combustion • The internal combustion engine was invented and used in liners, airplanes and the automobile.

    23. New Patterns • Faster production and transportation lowered the cost of goods which helped factory workers in Europe afford the goods they were making. • Also a world economy developed because of the increased speed at which goods could be moved. • The standard of living improved for industrialized countries but some parts of Europe including Russia still had agriculture based economies and remained poor.

    24. Responses to Industrialization • As more factories opened and factory owners continued to exploit workers the idea of socialism began to spread to improve the quality of life for workers. • In 1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote “The Communist Manifesto” which blamed poor labor conditions on capitalism and proposed a new social system of command economies that would become known as communism.

    25. Karl marx

    26. Class Struggles • Marx believed that the middle class, called the bourgeoisie used government to oppress the lower class, called the proletariat.

    27. Socialist Ideas • Political parties developed across Europe based on Marxist ideas including the German Social Democrat Party. • Some socialist movements called for revolution to overthrow capitalist economic systems while others worked within the current system to effect change. • Trade unions formed in England where they were allowed to strike in order to pressure factory owners to meet their demands.

    28. Section 3 The Emergence of Mass Society

    29. The New Urban Environment • The growing number of factories brought more people to the cities (urbanization) in search of work. • By 1890 60 percent of people in England lived in the cities.

    30. Social Structure of Mass Society

    31. Social Structure of Mass Society • The Elite • 5% of the population • Controlled 40% of wealth • The Working Class • 80% of the population • 55 million immigrated to the United States, Brazil, and Argentina looking for work.

    32. The Experiences of Women • Higher paying factory jobs for men allowed working class women to stay at home and care for their children. • Increased use of birth control meant families had less children allowing for a little more leisure time for mothers.

    33. Women’s Rights Movement • The Feminism movement grew with the enlightenment. • Women began to argue that they should enjoy the same rights as men. • Women gained the right to own property in England in 1870. Around the same time some women began to enter universities.

    34. Universal Education • During the Industrial Revolution education went from being for the elite only to being for everyone between the age of six and 12.