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Dynastic Rule in China

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  1. Dynastic Rule in China From the Sui to the Ming

  2. Sui Dynasty • How did this dynasty rise to power? • 589, Yang Jian conquered Chen kingdom and unified China for first time in 400 years • Jian founded Sui Dynasty at Chang’an and became emperor; was later called Wen Di • How did the dynasty govern China? • Emperors Wen Di and Yang Di are remembered for harsh rule • Forced many peasants to fight in army or to work on public works projects

  3. Sui Dynasty • What belief systems did this dynasty encourage? Discourage? • Wen Di, was Bhuddist, but encouraged Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism • How did this dynasty affect daily life in China? • Grand Canal promoted trade by connecting the Yellow and Yagnzi Rivers • Rebuilding of Great Wall provided security from northern raiders • List two ways this dynasty helped unite China. • Undertook extensive public work projects • Extended military control over large stretches of China

  4. Tang Dynasty“The Golden Age” • How did this dynasty rise to power? • 618, Li Shi Min captured Chang’an and Lou Yang • Li Shi Min named himself Emperor Dai Zong in 626 • How did this dynasty govern China? • Under Wu Zhao, China’s only empress, the Tang ruled one of the largest empires in Chinese history. • Gov. composed of depts., each with its own area. • Bureaucrats upheld Confucian ideals by acting as artists and politicians

  5. Tang Dynasty • What belief systems did this dynasty encourage? Discourage? • Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism flourished • Buddhism was repressed during the reign of Wu Zong • How did this dynasty affect daily life in China? • Equal-field system limited power or rural aristocracy • Scholar class became new ruling elite • Land reform gave some peasants a chance to gain wealth • List two ways this dynasty helped unite China. • Emperors directly controlled army • Equal-field system to benefit both government and commoners

  6. Song Dynasty • How did this dynasty rise to power? • Tai Zu emerged after 50 yrs. civil war to found Song Dynasty at Kaifeng • How did this dynasty govern China? • Mongolians and Manchurians harassed China’s northern borders for 200 years • Song royal family forced by Jurchen to establish a new capital at Hangzhou • Govt. officials came from southern China b/c north was under foreign rule • Bureaucrats selected according to scored on civil-service exams

  7. Song Dynasty • What belief systems did this dynasty encourage? Discourage? • Zen Buddhism became popular in China and East Asia • How did this dynasty affect daily life in China? • Power of merchant class rose as large-scale trade grew • Cambodian strain of rice allowed Chinese farmers to double quantity grown • Technological advancements produced new products • List two ways this dynasty helped unite China. • Moved center of Chinese culture south to Kaifeng • Used meritocracy to make government efficient and reliable

  8. Yuan Dynasty • How did this dynasty rise to power? • Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan, grandson of powerful, mongol leader Genghis Khan • Kublai Khan fought Song for 40 yrs. Before founding China’s only foreign-ruled dynasty • How did this dynasty govern China? • Civil-service system maintained by Turks and Persians • Strict hierarchy of social-service classes: 1.) tax-free mongols 2.) non-Chinese civil servants, 3.) northern Chinese, 4.) Southern Chinese

  9. Yuan Dynasty • What belief systems did this dynasty encourage? Discourage? • Kublai Khan retained shamanism • Chinese belief systems largely unaffected by Yuan rule • Number of Buddhist monasteries increased • How did this dynasty affect daily life in China? • Bloody wars of conquest led to the destruction of farmland • Kublai Khans maintained China’s roads and canals • Later Yuan emperors let them deteriorate • List two ways this dynasty helped unite China. • Retained civil service, but staffed it with foreigners • Allowed Chinese belief systems to coexist with Mongol shamanism

  10. Ming Dynasty How did this dynasty rise to power? • Chinese took advantage of chaos of late Yuan rule to rebel against Mongols • Rebel leader and founder of Ming Dynasty, Hong Wu, named his dynasty “brilliant” How did this dynasty govern China? -reintroduced the Civil-Service Exam -Emperors extremely powerful , often ruled as despots -brief period of overseas exploration although late Ming emperors prohibited foreign trade

  11. Ming Dynasty