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Please check, just in case…. APA Tip of the Day: Quoting on-line sources. Include the author – if a person is not listed, use the name of the organization (e.g. Council for Exceptional Children) Include the year – look carefully – often a year is listed at the bottom of the page in small print.

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apa tip of the day quoting on line sources
APA Tip of the Day: Quoting on-line sources
  • Include the author – if a person is not listed, use the name of the organization (e.g. Council for Exceptional Children)
  • Include the year – look carefully – often a year is listed at the bottom of the page in small print.
  • Include the page number, paragraph number, or, if neither of these are available, the section heading for the quoted text.

See APA manual, 2010, pp. 171-172

apa examples
APA Examples

From APA manual, 2010, p. 172:

  • In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that “the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia seemed best explained by their mental health condition and less by their physical condition” (Discussion section, para 1).

Note: Discussion is the complete section heading.

  • “Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior” (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted,” para. 4).

Note: Mandatory Labeling Has Targetedis NOT the complete section heading, therefore, it has quotation marks.

  • Reading review due now.
  • Please don’t wait to get started on your book review essay – it is due in two weeks.
  • Make an appointment to meet with me with any questions you have about upcoming assignments or class topics/concepts.
what does the social construction of disability imply a bout inclusion
April 3, 2013What Does the Social Construction of Disability Imply about inclusion?

Today’s Readings: Taylor (1988) AND Stainback & Stainback (1984)

the least restrictive environment just the facts
The Least Restrictive Environment -- Just the Facts...

IDEA requires that every student with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Specifically, the law stipulates that “to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities ... [will be] educated with children who are not disabled, and...

lre cont
LRE, cont.
  • Removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment may occur only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
lre cont1
LRE, cont.
  • The LRE is the setting that is closest to a regular school program and also meets the child's special educational needs.
  • LRE is a relative concept; the LRE for one child might be inappropriate for another.
lre cont2
LRE, cont.
  • Although the regular classroom is the LRE for many children with disabilities, IDEA does not stipulate that all children with disabilities must be educated in regular classrooms all of the time.
taylor s 1988 critique of lre and the continuum of services
Taylor’s (1988) critique of LRE and the continuum of services:
  • Legitimates restrictive environments. To conceptualize services in terms of restrictiveness is to legitimate more restrictive settings.
  • Confuses segregation and integration with intensity of services. LRE equates segregation with the most intensive services and integration with the least intensive services.
taylor s 1988 critique cont
Taylor’s (1988) critique cont.:
  • Based on a “readiness model.” The implicit assumption is that people with developmental disabilities must earn the right to move to the LRE.
  • Supports the primacy of professional decision making. The LRE is almost always qualified with words such as "appropriate," "necessary," "feasible," and "possible" (and never with "desired" or "wanted").
taylor s 1988 critique cont1
Taylor’s (1988) critique cont.:
  • Sanctions infringements on people's rights. The question imposed by LRE is not whether people with disabilities should be restricted, but to what extent.
  • Implies that people must move as they develop and change.
taylor s 1988 critique cont2
Taylor’s (1988) critique cont.:
  • Directs attention to physical settings rather than to the services and supports people need.
in contrast inclusive education means
In contrast, inclusive education means...
  • Heterogeneous grouping,
  • Asense of belonging to a group,
  • Shared activities with individualized outcomes,
  • Use of environments frequented by persons without disabilities, and
  • Abalanced educational experience.

(Giangreco, Cloninger, Dennis, & Edelman, as cited in Heward, 2000)


“African American students were overrepresented in more restrictive educational environments and underrepresented in less restrictive environments relative to all other students with the same disability. Disproportionality was most evident in those disability categories served primarily in general education settings.”

(Skiba et al, 2006, p. 411)


“The majority of African American (52.0%), Hispanic (49.8%), and Native American students (54.9%) were placed in the most segregated setting (setting 3), as compared to White (32.9%), Asian (21.6%), and Other (35.6%) students. Most ELLs (57.1%) were placed in setting 3, as compared to 38.1% of non-ELLs.”

de Valenzuela, Copeland, Qi, & Park, 2006, p. 432

mclaren 1994 p 182
(McLaren, 1994, p. 182)

“Hegemony is a struggle in which the powerful win the consent of those who are oppressed, with the oppressed unknowingly participating in their own oppression.”


How might the notion of “consent” from the definition of hegemony relate to the disproportionate placement of minority students in more segregated educational setting?

quick write
Quick Write:

How might the ways that we perceive (socially construct) different families impact the extent to which students are placed in different settings?

small group activity
Small Group Activity:

Get into small groups and share your progress on the rough drafts. Give each other ideas about critical readings and key quotes for each of the questions.