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Ethernet. Network Fundamentals – Chapter 9 Sandra Coleman, CCNA, CCAI. Objectives. Identify the basic characteristics of network media used in Ethernet. Describe the physical and data link features of Ethernet.

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ethernet

Ethernet

Network Fundamentals – Chapter 9

Sandra Coleman, CCNA, CCAI

objectives
Objectives

Identify the basic characteristics of network media used in Ethernet.

Describe the physical and data link features of Ethernet.

Describe the function and characteristics of the media access control method used by Ethernet protocol.

Explain the importance of Layer 2 addressing used for data transmission and determine how the different types of addressing impacts network operation and performance.

Compare and contrast the application and benefits of using Ethernet switches in a LAN as opposed to using hubs.

Explain the ARP process.

characteristics of network media used in ethernet
Characteristics of Network Media used in Ethernet

DIX (Digital Equipment, Intel, Xerox) – released stds. in 1980

IEEE 802.x – 1985

Ethernet operates at Layers 1 & 2 of OSI Model (Physical & Data Link)

Ethernet operates at Network Access layer of TCP/IP model

Alohanet – 1970 – digital radio network to connect Hawaiin islands.

1st LAN – Robert Metcalf – Xerox – 30 yrs. Ago

physical and data link features of ethernet
Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet

LLC sublayer – (802.2) independent of physical equip. Concerned with upper layer transitions

Layer 1 – involves signals, bit streams that travel on the media, various topologies

Layer 2 – MAC sublayer – concerned w/physical components (802.3)

physical and data link features of ethernet1
Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet

Know the IEEE numbers for Layer 1 & 2 protocols

physical and data link features of ethernet2
Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet

Logic Link Control – Connecting the Upper Layers

IEEE 802.2 standard is represented here

characteristics of network media used in ethernet1
Characteristics of Network Media used in Ethernet
  • Success of Ethernet is because of: simplicity/ease of maintenance, ability to adapt new technologies, reliability, and lower cost to install and upgrade
physical and data link features of ethernet4
Physical and Data Link Features of Ethernet

2 most common types of media are copper UTP and optical fiber.

characteristics of network media used in ethernet2
Characteristics of Network Media used in Ethernet
  • Migration from hubs to switches to increase throughput while minimizing collisions
  • Each port on a switch is a collision domain
layer 2 addressing and its impact on network operation and performance
Layer 2 Addressing and Its Impact on Network Operation and Performance

DATA field contains the layer 3 (network layer) packet

layer 2 addressing mac
Layer 2 Addressing (MAC)
  • The Ethernet MAC Address
mac address specifications
MAC Address specifications

Copied to RAM from ROM during POST (startup)

6 bytes (12 hex digits) long (3 bytes OUI, 3 bytes vendor assigned)

hexadecimal numbering system
Hexadecimal Numbering system

Base 16 – 0-9, A-F..

another layer of addressing
Another layer of addressing

MAC – used locally in the frame, layer 2 address

IP – used to cross a WAN in a packet, layer 3 address

addressing
Addressing

IP addresses NEVER change in a packet (layer 3)

MAC addresses DO change within a frame (layer 2)

If a device doesn’t know the MAC address for an IP address, it will broadcast an ARP request for this information.

slide17

Unicast – delivers a packet to ONE single destination host

Broadcast – delivers a packet to all hosts on a single broadcast domain

Multicast – delivers a packet to a group of hosts

mac in ethernet
MAC in Ethernet

All devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but no prioritized claim on it. Explain CSMA/CD.

carrier sense multiple access w collision detection
Carrier Sense Multiple Access w/Collision Detection
  • Random delay (backoff algorithm) is used to try to help prevent another collision. First expired timer gets to transmit data first.
  • Once a collision has occurred, devices return to listen before transmitting mode – THIS DECREASES network performance!
  • Devices DO NOT interrupt others that are in the process of sending data!
ethernet timing
Ethernet Timing
  • Every device that data travels (propagates) through adds delay (latency) because of the error checking, decision making involved.
  • This delay will actually cause some devices to transmit thinking there is NO signal on the wire, hence; collisions!
interframe spacing
Interframe spacing

Gives the media time to stabilize between frames. Allows slow devices time to process a frame and prepare for the next frame.

All devices are required to wait 96 microseconds before transmitting again.

legacy ethernet using hubs
Legacy Ethernet – Using Hubs
  • Created LOTS of collisions which will decrease network performance
  • Not scalable – just results in larger collision domains!
  • Increased latency
ethernet using switches
Ethernet – Using Switches
  • Each port is its on collision domain; full bandwidth available to that port – full duplexing capabilities – virtually collision FREE!
  • Switch will isolate segments and limit collisions!
address resolution protocol arp process
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Process

Receiving device responds by sending an ARP reply back as a unicast frame with its MAC address. It can then be added to the ARP table.

Purpose: resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses

Maintained dynamically by monitoring traffic that occurs on that segment of the network or by broadcasting an ARP request packets with the desired IP address, looking for the MAC address.

slide26

YEAH… Only 2 more chapters!!!

  • Study Guide – Do this NOW and show me...
    • Pg. 232-233 Matching
    • Pg. 234-235 – Multiple Choice
    • Pg. 238 – Matching
    • Pg. 239-240 – Multiple Choice
  • Discuss online Test – take it before next class, open book. Will count as a test grade.
  • Labs…None