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Homer ’ s Iliad tells only part of the Trojan War. Apollodorus ’ Library narrates, encyclopedically, the Trojan War — from “ Paris carried off Helen in accordance with the will of Zeus ” through “ After they killed the Trojans and burned the city... ” — in 58 paragraphs.

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Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war
Homer’s Iliad tells only part of the Trojan War

Apollodorus’Library narrates, encyclopedically, the Trojan War — from “Paris carried off Helen in accordance with the will of Zeus” through “After they killed the Trojans and burned the city...” — in 58 paragraphs.

Homer’s narrative covers the material covered by paragraphs 36 through 43 of those: “Achilles became angry ....” thru “... Priam ransomed Hector’s body and buried it.”

Classical playwrights and others reverently resisted the temptation to tread Homeric turf; but he left lots to discuss

Cf. the contest for the arms of Achilles, the sacrifice of Iphigenia, the death of Achilles, the Trojan Horse, etc. etc. etc.

Caetani Homer, this copy at the Louvre

By the way: Have you noticed this bust in

“O Brother, Where Art Thou?” The standard

depiction of Homer was copied many times

in antiquity, and many copies survive.


Some haikus of the trojan war
Some haikus of the Trojan War

  • Samantha EllsworthArms and men; shoulderson thighs, heads off kingly necks.Leather through tendons.

  • Eliza CiccottiDiscordant gold appleTen years of war on Troy's shoreWho will make it home?

  • Rebecca AllenPelides killed hope.Andromache wails in griefO Astyanax!

  • Liz LasleyApples, favors causeWar death destruction confusedNot sure what's the point


Hector and andromache iliad 6 the first passage in greek literature that makes macfarlane cry
Hector and Andromache, Iliad 6, the first passage in Greek literature that makes Macfarlane cry

Astyanax gives Hector and Andromache something to worry about at their last farewell.

Iliad 6. 475ff.

“In the same breath, shining Hector reached down / for his son — but the boy recoiled, / cringing against his nurse’s full breast, / screaming out at the sight of his own father, / terrified by the flashing bronze, the horsehair crest, / the great ridge of the helmet nodding, bristling terror —  / so it struck his eyes. And his loving father laughed , / his mother laughed as well, and glorious Hector, / quickly lifting the helmet from his head, set it down on the ground, fiery in the sunlight, and raising his son he kissed him, tossed him in his arms...” Fagles trans.

De Chirico’s “Hector and Andromache” (1917) does not make

Macfarlane cry... In case you cared. http://bubuina.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/giorgio-de-chirico-hector-and-andromache.jpg


Priam and achilles iliad 24 the humanization of achilles
Priam and Achilles, Iliad 24: the humanization of Achilles

Achilles relents and allows Priam to recover Patroclus’ body.

Priam: “Revere the gods, Achilles! Pity me in my own right, remember your own father! I deserve more pity. I have endured what no one on earth has ever done before — I put to my lips the hands of the man who killed my son.”

Those words stirred within Achilles a deep desire to grieve for his own father.”Fagles trans.

http://www.utexas.edu/courses/larrymyth/images/trojanwar/XD-Priam-Achilles.jpg


Iliou persis sack of troy athenian red figure amphora
Iliou Persis, Sack of TroyAthenian red-figure amphora

The decoration around the neck of this amphora shows the Greeks ransacking the house of Priam during the sack of Troy. The Greek term is Iliou Persis.

Above, Neoptolemus slays Priam, his son Polites gashed and dead across his lap. Neoptolemus is the son of Achilles, and his name means “new warrrior”.

Below, Cassandra clutches the Palladium, as Ajax steps over the corpse of a fallen Trojan and grasps her by the nape of the neck.


Vergil aeneid 2 the best surviving version of the sack of troy
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy

Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy.

Read Aeneid 2 for

the death of Laocoon

the Trojan Horse

the death of Priam

Aeneas’ escape from Troy

Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido.

At right, Bernini’s Aeneas:

the dutiful Aeneas carries Anchises on his shoulder, his own son Ascanius at his heel. Note the ancestral gods born in effigy on Anchises’ shoulder. This is all Vergil all the way.

The second passage... Aen. 2.526 ff.


Vergil aeneid 2 the best surviving version of the sack of troy1
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy

Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy.

Read Aeneid 2 for

the death of Laocoon

the Trojan Horse

the death of Priam

Aeneas’ escape from Troy

Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido.

At right, Laocoon:

the priest of Neptune is no longer protected by his patron, as snakes from Tenedos grip Laocoon and his sons in their sinuous embrace.

s

Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis. (... I fear the Greeks, especially when they are bearing gifts)

The second passage... Aen. 2.526 ff.


Vergil aeneid 2 the best surviving version of the sack of troy2
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy

Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy.

Read Aeneid 2 for

the death of Laocoon

the Trojan Horse

the death of Priam

Aeneas’ escape from Troy

Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido.

At right, Tiepolo :

The Trojans deny Laocoon’s advice, breach the walls, and introduce the Trojan Horse.

Tiepolo’s Trojan Horse (different from the 1773 variant in ML p. 511) is a mastery image.

The second passage... Aen. 2.526 ff.


Vergil aeneid 2 the best surviving version of the sack of troy3
Vergil, Aeneid 2: the best surviving version of the sack of Troy

Aeneid 2 contains the narrative of Aeneas’ escape from burning Troy.

Read Aeneid 2 for

the death of Laocoon

the Trojan Horse

the death of Priam

Aeneas’ escape from Troy

Cunning irony in the fact that Aeneas narrates the whole to Dido.

At right, Bernini’s Aeneas:

Priam is killed by Neoptolemos

The second passage... Aen. 2.526 ff.


Universality of the iliad cf ml p 507
Universality of the Iliad (cf. ML p. 507)

  • Goethe’s Faust admired Helen and conjured her up; Christopher Marlowe has his Dr. Faustus ask “Is this the face that launched a thousand ships?”

  • Hamlet conjures up in his own way the Death of Priam as an exemplum his mother might heed.

  • Jonathon Shay, Achilles in Vietnam: combat trauma and the undoing of character (Scribner: New York and Toronto, 1995).

  • “’I died in Vietnam’ is a common utterance of our patients. Most viewed themselves as already dead at some point in their combat service, often after a close friend was killed. Homer shows Achilles as ‘already dead’ before his death....” Shay p. 51.


Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

Chapter 19: The Trojan Saga and the Iliad

NOTE: The following slides are derivatives from ML materials. They are too lengthy for real use, except review.

  • The Children of Leda

  • Leda and Zeus (as a swan)

  • Castor and Clytemnestra (mortal egg); Helen and Polydeuces (immortal egg)

  • The Dioscuri (“sons of Zeus”)

  • Castor, tamer of horses and mortal

  • Polydeuces (Roman Pollux), skilled in boxing and immortal

  • Quarrel with Idas and Lynceus

  • Rape of the Leucippides (“daughters of Leucippus”)

  • Death of Castor

  • Shared immortality of Castor and Polydeuces

  • Patrons of sailors (St. Elmo’s fire)

  • Helen

  • Menelaüs, king of Sparta and HelenHermione

  • Paris (Alexander), son of Priam and Hecuba, the king and queen of Troy

  • The seduction of Helen and the start of the Trojan War

  • Variant: Stesichorus’ Palinode: the real Helen and the phantom Helen

  • The Judgment of Paris

  • Wedding of Peleus and Thetis

  • Eris, goddess of discord, and the golden apple (“for the most beautiful”)

  • Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite vie for honor

  • Paris chosen by Zeus to settle dispute

  • Hecuba’s dream: Paris as firebrand

  • Exposure as an infant

  • Hermes leads goddesses to Paris for his judgment.

  • Aphrodite wins with offer of Helen

  • Lucian (Dialogue of the Gods 20)


  • Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • Troy and its Leaders

    • Laomedon

    • King of Troy

    • Apollo and Poseidon commissioned to build walls of Troy

    • Plague and sea monster sent as punishment

    • Exposure of Hesione

    • Heracles and the first Greek expedition to Troy

    • Priam (Podarces) becomes king of Troy

    • Priam and Hecuba

    • 50 sons and 12 (or 50) daughters

    • Hecuba as tragic figure

    • Paris (Alexander)

    • Paris and Oenone, a nymph with power to heal

    • Paris grows to maturity and is received back into Priam’s house

    • Favorite of Aphrodite

    • Vanity and sensuality

    • Paris will ultimately kill Achilles

    • Hector, Andromache, and Astyanax

    • Hector, brother of Paris

    • Greatest of Troy’s defenders

    • Andromache, Hector’s wife

    • Astyanax, infant son of Hector and Andromache

    • Helenus, Deïphobus, and Troïlus

    • Helenus, prophet who knew the course of the war’s end

    • Caught by Odysseus; survives war

    • Marries Andromache

    • Deïphobus, husband of Helen after death of Paris

  • Troïlus, killed by Achilles; story of Troïlus and Cressida a later development


  • Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • Cassandra and Polyxena

    • Cassandra, daughter of Priam

    • Prophetess, though never believed

    • Killed by Clytemnestra

    • Polyxena, final virgin sacrifice before the tomb of Achilles

    • Aeneas

    • Son of Anchises and Aphrodite

    • Prophecy about Aeneas and his descendants: future rulers of Troy

    • Significant in Roman legends

    • Antenor

    • Brother of Hecuba

    • Counsels return of Helen

    • Spared by Greeks

    • With wife, Theano, he founds Patavium (Padua) in Italy

    • Glaucus and Sarpedon

    • Leaders of Lycian contingent

    • Glaucus, hereditary guest-friend of Diomedes

    • Killed by Ajax (son of Telamon)

    • Sarpedon, son of Zeus and Laodamia

    • Zeus’ Struggle with Sarpedon’s Fate (moira )

    • Sarpedon, second to Hector in nobility on Trojan side

    • Expounds the demands of heroic arete (“excellence”)

    • Rhesus

    • Leader of Thracians

    • Night raid of Odysseus and Diomedes


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • The Achaean Leaders

    • Independent commanders of their contingents

    • Agamemnon

    • King of Mycenae

    • “Lord of Men”

    • Leader of expedition against Troy

    • Greatest in prestige

    • Menelaüs

    • King of Sparta

    • Brother of Agamemnon

    • Husband of Helen

    • Diomedes

    • King of Argos and a great warrior

    • Favored of Athena

    • Wounds Ares and Aphrodite

    • Associated with Odysseus

    • The Palladium (statue of Pallas), talisman for Troy

    • Nestor

    • King of Pylos

    • Oldest and wisest

    • “His speech flowed more sweetly than honey.”

    • Survives war

    • Ajax the Greater of Salamis

    • Son of Telamon

    • Bulwark of the Achaeans

    • Foil and rival of Odysseus

    • Straightforward, brusque


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • Ajax the Less (or Lesser)

    • Prince of Locrians, son of Oïleus

    • Violation of Cassandra and his punishment

    • Idomeneus

    • Leader of Cretans, son of Deucalion

    • Voluntary ally

    • Odysseus

    • Attempt to avoid war by feigning madness

    • Crafty, cunning, of persuasive speech

    • Achilles and His Son Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus)

    • Prince of the Myrmidons in Phthia

    • Greatest of Greek warriors

    • Swift-footed, handsome

    • Son of Peleus and Thetis

      • Peleus

        • Prince of Phthia, father of Achilles, son of Aeacus (king of Aegina), and brother of Telamon

        • Death of Phocus, exile of Peleus to Phthia, and his purification by Eurytion

        • Participation in the Calydonian boar hunt

        • Accidental death of Eurytion

        • Purification by Acastus, son of Pelias and king of Iolcus

        • Acastus’ wife, Astydamia, falls in love with Peleus

        • Acastus attempts to kill Peleus but fails

        • Son of Peleus and Thetis destined to be greater than the fatherAchilles


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • Thetis

    • Unwilling wife of Peleus

    • A Nereid (“child of Nereus”)

    • Attempts to escape from Peleus

    • Wedding of Peleus and Thetis

    • She leaves Peleus not long after the birth of Achilles

    • Thetis attempts to make Achilles immortal

    • Achilles’ heel

    • Educated by the centaur Chiron

    • Achilles’ fate: early death with glory, or long life without glory

    • Disguised as girl and sent to Scyros

    • Achilles’ disguise unmasked by Odysseus

    • Achilles and Deïdamia, daughter of Lycomedes, King of ScyrosNeoptolemus (Pyrhhus)

    • Phoenix and Patroclus

    • Phoenix

    • Banished by his father

    • Welcomed by Peleus

      • Companion and tutor to Achilles

      • Patroclus

      • Also received by Peleus

      • Closest companion of Achilles

      • Later tradition would see them as lovers


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • The gathering of the expedition at Aulis

    • Aulis, on the coast of Boeotia, opposite Euboea

    • Roughly 1,200 ships

    • The sacrifice of Iphigenia

    • The anger of Artemis and the prophet Calchas

    • Calchas’ prophecy about the length of the war

    • The Arrival at Troy

    • Philoctetes

    • Son of Poeas

    • Island of Chryse and Philoctetes’ wound

    • Abandonment of Philoctetes on Lemnos

    • Bow of Heracles and the fate of Troy

    • Philoctetes kills Paris

    • Achilles heals Telephus

    • Mysian Hero, son of Heracles

    • “He that wounded shall heal.”

    • Protesilaüs and Laodamia

    • Protesilaüs killed by Hector as the Greeks come ashore

    • Laodamia’s grief

    • Brief return of Protesilaüs and Laodamia’s suicide

    • Cycnus, son of Poseidon, turned into a swan


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • The Iliad

    • From the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon to the burial of Hector

    • Chryseïs, daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo

    • Plague sent by Apollo

    • Briseïs taken from Achilles as recompense

    • Wrath of Achilles and his refusal to fight

    • Heroic arete (“excellence”) wounded

    • Epiphany of Athena to Achilles

    • Thetis and Zeus

    • Truce and duel between Menalaüs and Paris

    • The farewell of Hector and Andromache

    • Embassy to Achilles

    • Odysseus’ attempt to soften Agamemnon’s words

    • Achilles’ response

    • Roles of Phoenix and Ajax

    • Trojan victory and fire at the Greek ships

    • Patroclus enters struggle

    • Death of Sarpedon

    • Patroclus killed by Hector

    • Achilles’ unquenchable grief and rage

    • Shield of Achilles fashioned by Hephaestus

    • Achilles’ return

    • Death of Hector

    • Mutilation of Hector’s corpse

    • Priam’s journey to ransom the body of Hector

    • Achilles relents

    • Burial of Hector

    • The Olympian Gods in Battle

    • Intimate involvement in conflict

    • Theomachies (“conflicts between gods”)

    • The Universality of the Iliad

  • War as universal human experience


  • Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • The Fall of Troy

    • Sources: summaries of lost epics, tragedy, representations in art, and Vergil’s Aeneid

    • Achilles and Penthesilea, leader of the Amazons

    • Achilles and Memnon, son of Eos (Aurora), leader of the Ethiopians

    • Death of Achilles

    • Wounded in the heel by Paris with the aid of Apollo

    • Corpse recovered by Ajax

    • Ghost of Achilles and the sacrifice of Polyxena

    • Odysseus and Ajax Compete for the Armor of Achilles

    • Disgrace of Ajax, his madness, and suicide

    • Sophocles’Ajax

    • The Deaths of Paris and Priam

    • Summons of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) and Philoctetes

    • Philoctetes kills Paris.

    • Neoptolemus butchers Priam

    • Vergil’s Aeneid

    • The Wooden Horse

    • Epeus

    • Homer’s Odyssey and the song of Demodocus

    • Vergil’s Aeneid, Book 2: a detailed account of the sack of Troy

    • Odysseus’ role

    • Sinon

    • Laocoön’s fear of the horse and his death, along with his two sons


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • The Sack of Troy

    • The wooden horse is brought inside Troy

    • Greeks return from Tenedos

    • Slaughter of Trojans

    • Violation of Cassandra and her eventual murder

    • Hecuba’s transformation; Cynossema (“dog’s tomb”)

    • The Trojan Women of Euripides

    • Death of Astyanax

    • The Sack of Troy in the Aeneid

    • Witness of Troy’s death throes, Aeneas, survives sack

    • Anchises and Ascanius (Iulus)

    • Creusa, Aeneas’ wife; her appearance as a ghost


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    • Appendix

    • Meleager and the Calydonian boar hunt

    • The embassy to Achilles and Phoenix' cautionary tale of Meleager

    • After the Calydonian boar hunt Meleager, in a quarrel, killed his uncle, brother of his mother Althaea

    • In grief Althaea prays for the death of her son

    • In anger Meleager withdraws from battle

    • Cleopatra, Meleager’s wife, successfully appeals to him, but he returns to battle

    • too late to receive the earlier offer of reward

    • In the Book 9 of the Iliad Phoenix uses the argument of lost rewards to try and persuade Achilles to return to battle

    • Calydonian boar hunt

    • The François Vase

    • Ovid’s version in the Metamorphoses

    • Oeneus, descendant of Aeolus, king of Calydon, father of Deïanira

      • Meleager, son of Oeneus

      • Althaea, mother of Meleager, and the prophecy of the log

      • Oeneus’ offense against Artemis

      • Artemis sends a huge boar to ravage Calydon

      • Gathering of heroes by Meleager

      • Atalanta, daughter of Schoenus, a Boeotian king

      • Atalanta is first to wound the boar; Meleager delivers the killing blow

      • Meleager favors Atalanta

      • Death of Althaea’s brothers

      • The burning of the log and the death of Meleager

      • Mourning women turned into guinea fowl (meleagrides)


    Homer s iliad tells only part of the trojan war

    The Trojan Saga

    Homer’s version

    Boar sent by Artemis during war between Calydonians and Curetes

    Meleager kills boar

    Curse of Althaea; Meleager withdraws from the war

    Meleager relents, and returns and saves Calydon

    Bacchylides’ fifth Epinician Ode

    Ghost of Meleager and Heracles

    The tradition of Atalanta

    Euripides’Phoenissae: Atalanta as the mother of Parthenopaeus, one of the Seven against Thebes