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Word Analysis In the Content Area II March 2, 2011
WORD ANALYSIS REVIEW • What is Word Analysis? • The identification and/or decoding of a word the reader does not immediately recognize. • This can include: • Decoding • Spelling patterns • Previous vocabulary knowledge • Greek and Latin root words as well as prefixes and suffixes • This does not include: • Copying the definition from the glossary or the dictionary • Rote memorization • Learning words out of context
Word analysis • Why do we need to focus on Word Analysis?
Last time… The Frayer Model is a graphic organizer used for word analysis and vocabulary building. This four-square model prompts students to think about and describe the meaning of a word or concept by . . . • Defining the term, • Describing its essential characteristics, • Providing examples of the idea, and • Offering non-examples of the idea.
Concept of definition map • Students often have a narrow conception of what the meaning of a word encompasses. Student definitions tend to be simplistic, imprecise statements lacking in elaboration and personal comment. • Concept of Definition Maps encourages students to develop a broader definition – one that explores the qualities and components of a definition. CRISS, p. 197
What is it? What is it like? (Properties) Constitutional Amendment First 10 amendments Bill of Rights Protects individual rights Amendment 16 Income Tax Added in 1791 Comparison Freedom of religion, press, speech, etc… Right to a trial by jury Right to bear arms What are some examples? (Illustrations)
Word stems • Skilled reading depends on knowing words, but also on dealing effectively with new words. • One independent word learning strategy is knowing word stems or morphemes (the smallest units of meaning). • Morphemes can stand on their own or be a part of a word (prefixes, roots, suffixes). Affixes (prefixes and suffixes) modify the meaning of morphemes.
Word Stems Other words include: • Retract • Extract • Protract • Detract • Contraction • Attractive • Traction • Tractable contract abstract attract Tract pull, draw, drag detract tractor subtract retract distract
Since Last Time… • Turn to your shoulder partner and discuss the following: • What word analysis strategies have you used since November? • How/when have you used these strategies? • Explain how the use of these strategies has supported students in content area reading.
Today • We will focus our attention on four additional instructional strategies to teach word analysis skills: • Etymology • Vocabulary Organization • Semantic Gradient • Semantic Feature Analysis
Etymology and Word Roots • Etymology, the study of a word’s origins, helps students troubleshoot unfamiliar vocabulary by introducing them to common Greek and Latin roots of many words in the English language. English Language
Root Word Cards • Root word cards allow students to explore vocabulary as part of their content area lesson and to implement new words in discussion and writing. • Students can create the cards individually or in groups. A list of common roots is in the TSR, though many lists can also be found online. TSR, 127-9
Root Word Cards Front Back • Other Words: • Justice • Jury • Adjudicate • Judge • Prejudice • Judicious Judicial: jus, jur, jud (judge) The judicial branch judges and decides what is right and wrong according to the law. • Other Words: • Legal • Legalize • Legitimate • Legacy • Legible • Privilege Legislator: lex, leg (law) The legislative branch creates, brings, and votes on laws that other branches will enforce.
Root Word Cards Front Back Genocide: cide (kill or cut) Exterminate an entire race. Hitler was responsible for the most extreme case of genocide in history. • Other Words: • Suicide • Definition • Incise • Definition • Insecticide • Definition • ? • Definition • ? • Definition
Vocabulary Organization • Organizing vocabulary that students have learned allows students to recall words more quickly and completely. • Vocabulary notebooks are one way to structure student learning and are an important tool that can provide students background knowledge and help them form associations among words Teaching Basic and Advanced Vocabulary, Marzano
Vocabulary Notebooks • Vocabulary notebooks are a critical tool in student word learning and provide a single place for students to record important words. They serve as a portfolio of student growth in vocabulary over time. • Most vocabulary notebooks have three sections
Semantic Gradient • Semantic gradients are scales that force students to place words along a continuum of meaning. • Semantic gradients build deep word knowledge that helps students differentiate between related words. Words Their Way for Struggling Readers, Flanigan
Semantic Gradients • Gradients allow students to link prior associations with known words to newly acquired words. • Gradients can be used with or without a word bank.
Semantic Gradients • Science/Mathematics
Semantic Gradients Word Bank Twister Breeze Typhoon Gust
Semantic Feature Analysis • This strategy helps reinforce vocabulary that is essential to understanding important concepts in a text. • The purpose is for students to develop word associations and to extend their content knowledge. • This strategy can elicit prior knowledge if used before reading the text. • Semantic Feature Analysis can serve as a reason to read as well as an activity to allow the student to monitor his/her comprehension of the material. McREL and CRISS
Semantic Feature Analysis • Example: “Polygons” – have teachers look at the example and the components of the graphic
Semantic Feature Analysis • Your turn: • Think of an upcoming unit/lesson where students will need to make associations with various words. • Choose vocabulary words that students need to classify and/or make associations. Fill out the chart using that word. • Think about how this tool can help students before, during, and after reading the material.
Debrief: • When could you use this strategy in your classroom? • How will this strategy help students with Word Analysis? • How many words are important enough to receive this amount of instructional time?
Word Walls • Review: • How many words and how often? • The amount needs to be a small number of targeted vocabulary words. • How do I create word walls when I have more than one class? • Use a rolling wall/file cabinet, • Section off the room for each class/subject, • Color code per class, • Use a student vocabulary notebook for personal word walls
Word walls • Whole Group Activities: • Visiting Word: After students have worked on a word wall for a substantial period of time, add a “visiting” word. This encourages students to do a review of the word wall as they hunt for the new word. Present the visiting word as the new word of the day. • Missing Word: Take one word off of the wall and rearrange the remaining words. Students scan the word wall and figure out which word is missing. Give clues to help determine the missing word.
Word walls • Small Group Activities: • Word Cards Partner Game: Pairs of students take turns choosing a word card and offering a definition for the word. The partner guesses and spells the word. • Drama: Students choose a word from the word wall and improvise a situation that portrays the word. Peers guess the word.
Word walls • Independent Activities: • Definition Bingo: Students fill in a bingo-type grid with word wall words. As definitions are read out, students cross out the corresponding word on their grid. The first person to get to a complete line of words wins. As a variation, give synonyms and antonyms for appropriate word wall words. • Rankings: Students individually list the word wall words, in writing, from the most difficult to the easiest for them to understand or to spell. If this activity is done at the beginning, middle, and end of the unit, students can note how their rankings have changed.
Word walls • As An Assessment: • Assess students’ ability to spell the word wall vocabulary accurately, in completing a major assignment • Assess students’ increased vocabulary by looking at their ability to use word wall words effectively ins a writing piece at the end of a unit. • Assess students’ understanding of key concepts inherent in the words by their ability to answer terminology-based questions on a test.
Closing: • 3 - 2 – 1: 3. List three reasons to focus on word analysis strategies in your content area. 2. List two word analysis strategies that you plan to use this month. 1. List one activity to use with word walls.