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GCRCT REVIEW. 7 th Grade Social Studies 2010-2011. Ethnic Groups vs Religious Groups. Ethnic Groups: groups that share many common characteristics, such as language, physical features, customs, and traditions

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gcrct review


7th Grade Social Studies


ethnic groups vs religious groups
Ethnic Groups vs Religious Groups
  • Ethnic Groups: groups that share many common characteristics, such as language, physical features, customs, and traditions
  • Religious Groups: groups that share a common belief system, but are not necessarily composed of a single ethnic group.

Ethnic Groups or Religious Groups

  • Africa: Arabs, Ashanti, Bantu, Swahili
  • Middle East: Arabs, Persians, Kurds, Jews, Christians,

Muslims (10-15% Shi’a, 90% Sunni)

  • Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhist, Hindus, Muslims,

followers of Shintoism, followers of


  • A desire to be liberated from rule by another country’s government
  • A devotion and loyalty to one’s own country
holocaust anti semitism zionism
  • The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews and the deaths of millions of other Europeans resulting from Adolf Hitler’s belief that he should rid the earth of Jews. Many Jews fled Europe to Palestine. It ended with Germany’s defeat in WWII in 1945.
  • Anti-Semitism is hostility toward or prejudice against Jews or Judaism
  • Zionism is a Jewish movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine – this goal was achieved with the creation of Israel, the Jewish state – started by Theodor Hertzl – end of 19th century
  • Mao Zedong: leader who introduced Communism to China (leader of the Red Army)
  • The Long March: the 6,000 mile march to northern China (by Zedong and his Red Army) to escape Chiang Kai-shek and his troops
  • Great Leap Forward: a series of policies that Mao thought would help China to become equal to the leading powers of the West in agricultural and industrial production – huge failure – millions died
  • Cultural Revolution: an attempt by Mao Zedong to eliminate the gap between the educated elites and the peasants of the countryside – resulted in the formation of the Red guards, destruction of books and artwork, schools and colleges being closed, and many innocent people were killed if they disagreed with Zedong – lasted for 10 years (1966-1976)
  • Tiananmen Square: site where Chinese students protested for Democracy in 1989 (against the communist government of China)
ways governments distribute power
Ways Governments Distribute Power
  • Unitary:characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is held by one central authority.
  • Confederation: voluntary associations of independent states, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation.
  • Federal: characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities.
  • Ex: The United States (Federal government + state govt.’s)
  • 3 Basic Economic Questions:

- What goods are produced?

- How are these goods produced?

- For whom are these goods produced?

3 types of economic systems: traditional, command, market

  • Traditional: economic system based on traditions, routines, and beliefs. Different roles in a traditional economy are passed down through family members. This system is still used by some tribes in Africa.
  • Command: economic system based on central control of trade and production. The government decides what goods and services are provided to its people. Pure command economies are still found in politically isolated countries such as Cuba and North Korea. Egypt is moving away from pure command toward a market economy, but the government still has some control over the financial decisions in the economy.
  • Market: economic system that is managed by the people.
  • - also known as free market system or capitalism
  • - based on supply and demand
  • - businesses control how much they produce, and people control how much they consume (supply and demand)
  • Mixed: economic system based on the mixture of both command (government controlled) and market (private ownership) economies. There is a range in trade and industry freedoms. Examples of countries with mixed economies are South Africa and Nigeria.
  • Voluntary trade is important to a country’s economy:
  • Things that hinder free trade:

Tariffs, quotas, embargoes, sanctions (political trade barriers), different currency, natural trade barriers (Atlas Mountains, Sahara Desert)

  • Things that encourage free trade:

Specialization, common currency, market/mixed economy

  • Capital:

- Investing in Human capital and capital goods = increase in GDP

- How does a country invest in human capital? Education and training

- How does a country invest in capital? Factories, machinery, technology

  • Natural features of a country can affect economic growth (location, resources, climate):

National resources Facts:

  • Saudi Arabia and Iran are among the top five nations with large oil reserves.
  • Saudi Arabia and Iran are among the top five oil-producing nations in the world.
  • Israel imports 99% of the oil it needs.
  • Nigeria is among the top ten oil-exporting nations with large reserves.
  • South Africa is the leading producer of gold.
  • South Africa is among the top five diamond-producing nations.
  • Uranium deposits of great value have recently been found in Nigeria.
  • Japan has few natural resources and imports most of its raw materials.
  • China and India are among the top five coal-producing nations in the world.
geography middle east
Geography: Middle East

Know where the following physical features are located on a map:

  • Tigris River
  • Euphrates River
  • Jordan River
  • Suez Canal
  • Persian Gulf
  • Strait of Hormuz
  • Arabian Sea
  • Red Sea
  • Gaza Strip
geography middle east1
Geography: Middle East
  • Be able to located the following countries on a map:
    • Afghanistan
    • Iran
    • Iraq
    • Israel
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Turkey
geography asia
Geography: Asia

Know where the following physical features are located on a map:

  • Ganges River
  • Huang He (Yellow River)
  • Indus River
  • Mekong River
  • Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River
  • Bay of Bengal
  • Indian Ocean
  • Sea of Japan
  • South China Sea
  • Yellow Sea
  • Gobi Desert
  • Taklimakan Desert
  • Himalayan Mountains
  • Korean Peninsula
geography asia1
Geography: Asia
  • Be able to locate the following countries on a map:





*North Korea

*South Korea


geography africa
Geography: Africa
  • Be able to label the following physical features on a map:
    • The Sahara
    • Sahel
    • Savanna
    • Tropical rain forest
    • Congo River
    • Niger River
    • Nile River
    • Lake Tanganyika
    • Lake Victoria
    • Atlas Mountains
    • Kalahari Desert
geography africa1
Geography: Africa
  • Be able to label the following countries on a map:
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire)
    • Egypt
    • Kenya
    • Nigeria
    • South Africa
    • Sudan