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Users and Documents. Free Powerpoint Templates. Contents. Server Users and Directories Server Administrators Document Hierarchy Directory Indexing File and Directory Names Transferring Files. Lab 3.1 – Server Users and Directories.

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Users and Documents

Free Powerpoint Templates

  • Server Users and Directories
  • Server Administrators
  • Document Hierarchy
  • Directory Indexing
  • File and Directory Names
  • Transferring Files
lab 3 1 server users and directories
Lab 3.1 – Server Users and Directories
  • A server connected to the Internet will be useful to others on the Net only if it provides some services.
  • Common Services
    • HTTP
    • SMTP email
    • telnet
    • FTP
document directories
Document Directories
  • Web server responsibilities
    • Provide access to HTML documents from the server
    • Will enable a single directory for publishing Web documents
    • Any files put in this directory or any subdirectories will be available via a browser- Document Root Directory
server users
Server Users
  • Generally has accounts for any local users that need to do things on it
  • Are actually people doing work on the server
  • Task is to update and edit Web pages
  • A user account consists of a
    • Usernames
    • password
user directories
User Directories
  • Once you log into a server with your username and password, you typically start in your home directory
  • Profile scripts/login scripts
    • Scripts that run when you log in to customize your environment
lab 3 2 server administrator
Lab 3.2 – Server Administrator
  • Duties of System Administrator
    • Install and configure server OS
    • Set up daemons/services (UNIX/NT)
    • Install and configure web server
    • Keep server software up to date
      • Patches (UNIX)
      • Service packs (NT)
system administrator duties
System Administrator Duties
  • Backup and recovery
    • To disk or tape
    • Full and incremental backups
  • Accounts and quotas
    • Maintain users and their accounts
    • Decide level of resources for users
  • Network software configuration
  • Monitoring security
servers and daemons
Servers and Daemons
  • Servers
    • Web server is a program that, using the client/server model and the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ), serves the files that form Web pages to Web users (whose computers contain HTTP clients that forward their requests).
  • Daemons
    • A daemon is a type of program on Unix-like operating systems that runs unobtrusively in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user, waiting to be activated by the occurrence of a specific event or condition
patches and service packs
Patches and Service Packs
  • Another duty of the system administrator is to keep the server software up to date
  • Patches are often released for UNIX systems that fix bugs and security problems and provide other enhancement
backup and recovery
Backup and Recovery
  • A good system administrator
    • Ensure that everything on the serve is being backed up regularly
  • Backups should occur regularly and automatically
accounts and quotas
Accounts and Quotas
  • The system administrator also needs to maintain user accounts
  • Involves:
    • in creating accounts for new users
    • deleting accounts of users that no longer need access
    • Maintaining the integrity of user accounts
other system administrator responsibilities
Other System Administrator Responsibilities
  • Installing and upgrading hardware and software
  • Network configuration (changing IP address, etc)
  • Configuration testing
  • Monitoring system security and availability
  • Analyzing log files
lab 3 3 document hierarchy
Lab 3.3 Document Hierarchy
  • The files and directories on your server are organized in a file system.
  • File system determines:
    • Where files are stored on a computer’s hard drive
    • How many letters a filename can contain
    • The security of files stored on the computer
file system attributes
File System Attributes
  • Goal – to provide a means to store and retrieve files
  • FAT doesn’t support long filename
  • Used naming convention called 8.3 naming convention
    • Must be at most 8 characters with an optional 3-character suffix naming convention
directories and folders
Directories and Folders
  • Some OS, such as Windows, support the notion of drive letters
    • Eg. C:\,
  • UNIX doesn’t support drive letters, it is a strict hierarchy
    • Eg. Start with /
directories and folders1
Directories and Folders
  • Directory
    • A special file on the file system
    • Stores other files
    • Called folders on some OS
  • Subdirectory
    • A directory within another directory
    • All directories created under the root directory
  • Root directory
    • Uppermost folder, used to store all the files on the file system


    • To a file is a list of all the parent directories above it
  • Pathname
    • A name representing a path
    • Typically the directory name separated by slashes (/) or backslashes (\)

Absolute pathname

    • A description of a file or directory based off the root directory
    • /usr/local/httpd/htdocs
  • Relative pathname
    • Is used to reference files based on the current directory
    • Cd/usr/local/httpd
    • Cd htdocs
uniform resource locators
Uniform Resource Locators
  • Describe how to find a web resource

Path: support

Filename: industrial.html

  • Use relative URLs in your own web pages
    • Make it easy to move to another directory
lab 3 4 directory indexing
Lab 3.4 Directory Indexing
  • Many times while surfing the Web, you have probably requested a URL without actually specifying a filename
  • By typing in only the name of a site, you are not actually specifying a file to retrieve
  • The server determines what file to retrieve based on directory indexes.
directory indexing
Directory Indexing
  • If no file name in a URL:
    • Directory browsing enabled
      • If index document, return default document
      • Otherwise return list of files
  • Directory browsing disabled
    • If index document, return default document
    • Otherwise return nothing
how web servers view directories
How web servers view directories
  • Several options are available when choosing how your Web server views directories
    • No directory browsing permitted
    • Directory browsing permitted, but no default documents enables
    • Indexes enabled
lab 3 5 file and directory names
Lab 3.5 File and Directory Names
  • Good file names
    • Make your site easier to maintain
    • Easier to navigate
    • Help to develop the site
  • Two of the important things to remember:
    • Develop a layout for your directories
    • To create a naming scheme for files
good filename practice
Good Filename Practice
  • Don’t’ use spaces in names
    • Use underscores (_) or dash (-) instead
  • Don’t use special characters
    • %#@$?&
  • Keep filenames short but descriptive
  • Use a standard naming convention
good filename practice 2
Good Filename Practice (2)
  • Use consistent filename extensions
    • .html , .gif
  • Don’t use extensions with directory names
  • Use lowercase letters in all filenames
    • UNIX is case sensitive
    • Windows is (mostly)not case sensitive
lab 3 6 transferring files
Lab 3.6 Transferring Files
  • If you’re lucky enough to be local to your Web server, transferring files may seem like a trivial task
  • Copying files may used either floppy disk, zip drive, Hard drive, etc
file sharing
File Sharing
  • If your serve is on a local network, you might be able to mount the server’s drives or partitions on your client machines
  • Windows – Microsoft Windows Networking
  • UNIX – Network File System
file transfer protocol ftp
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Popular method of accessing files on the Internet
  • Provides a standard, error-free way to transfer files to and from different machines on a network
  • Are supported on most OS
  • FTP servers require a username and password for log in
http put
  • HTTP has a PUT method for sending files to a Web Server
  • The PUT method is similar to the more widely used POST method
  • But while POST is used to send data and queries to the server, PUT is used exclusively for sending files.
  • An easy to use HTML editor
  • Best feature is its seamless integration with the Web Server
  • Synchronisation between development PC and web server
  • BUT
    • Not all ISPs support this type of usage
    • Works best with Microsoft web server
    • Proprietary
frontpage extensions
Frontpage extensions
  • Allowing users to save HTML files their local drives
  • Its real power, however, is when it is used with a server that supports FrontPage Extensions
    • Are a group of files and CGI programs that are added to the Web server
    • Allow the FrontPage client to connect to the server and take a snapshot of a Web site.
    • Allow client to modify Web pages on the server
    • Provide authentication