Terminologies like: • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) • Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) • Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) • Computer Based Instruction (CBI) • Computer Enriched Instruction (CEI) • Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)
Other New terminologies • Web Based Training • Web Based Learning • Web Based Instruction
Computer-based instruction (CBI) are the broadest terms and can refer to virtually any kind of computer use in educational settings.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) A narrower term and most often refers to drill-and-practice, tutorial, or simulation activities.
Computer-managed instruction (CMI) Computer-managed instruction is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, record keeping, progress tracking, and assessment of learner performance.
Computer based tools and applications are used to assist the teacher or school administrator in the management of the learner and instructional process.
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) • A self-learning technique, usually offline/online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials. • is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.
Advantages of CBE • one-to-one interaction • great motivator • freedom to experiment with different options • instantaneous response/immediate feedback to the answers elicited • Self pacing - allow students to proceed at their own pace
Advantages of CBE • Individual attention • Helps teacher can devote more time to individual students • Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learns • Learn more and more rapidly • Multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach • Self directed learning – students can decide when, where, and what to learn
Limitations of CBE • may feel overwhelmed by the information and resources available • over use of multimedia may divert the attention from the content • learning becomes too mechanical • non availability of good CAI packages • lack of infrastructure
Typical CBE Provides1. text or multimedia content2. multiple-choice questions3. problems4. immediate feedback5. notes on incorrect responses6. summarizes students' performance7. exercises for practice8. Worksheets and tests.
Types of Computer Based-Education • Drill and Practice • Tutorial • Games • Simulation • Discovery • Problem Solving
1. Drill-and-practice Drill and practice provide opportunities or students to repeatedly practice the skills that have previously been presented and that further practice is necessary for mastery. • 2. TutorialTutorial activity includes both the presentation of information and its extension into different forms of work, including drill and practice, games and simulation.
3. Games Game software often creates a contest to achieve the highest score and either beat others or beat the computer. 4. Simulation Simulation software can provide an approximation of reality that does not require the expense of real life or its risks.
5. Discovery - provides a large database of information specific to a course or content area and challenges the learner to analyze, compare, infer and evaluate based on their explorations of the data.
6. Problem Solving This approach helps children develop specific problem solving skills and strategies.
Kulik, J. A., Bangert, R. L., & Williams, G. W. (1983) Effects of computer-based teaching on secondary school students. • The analysis showed that computer-based teaching raised students" scores on final examinations by approximately .32 standard deviation, or from the 50th to the 63rd percentile. Computer-based instruction also had smaller, positive effects on scores on follow-up examinations given to students several months after the completion of instruction. In addition, students who were taught on computers developed positive attitudes toward the computer and toward the courses they were taking. The computer reduced substantially the amount of time that students needed for learning.
The Effect of Computers on Student Writing: A Meta-analysis of Studies from 1992 to 2002by Amie Goldberg, Michael Russell, Abigail Cook • Meta-analyses were performed including 26 studies conducted between 1992–2002 focused on the comparison between K–12 students writing with computers vs. paper-and-pencil. Significant mean effect sizes in favor of computers were found for quantity of writing and quality of writing. • Studies focused on revision behaviors between these two writing conditions revealed mixed results. Others studies collected for the meta-analysis which did not meet the statistical criteria were also reviewed briefly.
LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS ONLINE:WHAT THE RESEARCH TELLS USby Karen Swan (2003)Research Center for Educational Technology, Kent State University • This paper reviews the literature on the learning effectiveness of asynchronous online environments. It looks beyond the commonly accepted findings of no significant differences in learning outcomes between online and traditional courses to examine that literature in terms of forms of interactivity, a feature of online environments that might matter or be made to matter in learning. It thus explores and is organized according to learner interactions with course content, student interactions with instructors, and interactions among classmates in online course environments. More recent notions of interactions with computer and course interfaces and virtual interaction are also briefly examined. The chapter concludes with a summary of what the research tells us and its for implications online learning.
The Effect of Computers on Student Writing: A Meta-analysis of Studies from 1992 to 2002by Amie Goldberg, Michael Russell, Abigail Cook • Findings shows that the writing process is more collaborative, iteractive, and social in computer classrooms as compared with paper-and-pencil environments. • For educational leaders questioning whether computers should be used to help students develop writing skills, the results of the meta-analyses suggest that on average students who use computers when learning to write are not only more engaged and motivated in their writing, but they produce written work that is of greater length and higher quality.
Effects of Using Instructional Technology in Elementary and Secondary Schools: What Controlled Evaluation Studies SayBY: James A. Kulik (2003) Consultant to SRI International • Overall, however, evaluation studies suggest that schools have been more successful inusing instructional technology during the past decade than they were in earlier years. The growing effectiveness of instructional technology should not come as a great surprise. Computers have improved dramatically since they were first used in instruction. Today’s computers are faster, friendlier, and more visually and aurally sophisticated than yesterday’s models. • In addition, students are more computer-literate today than they were in years past, and many teachers have become sophisticated users of instructional software. Recent evaluation studies suggest that instructional technology is thriving in this climate and that computers—which have transformed society in so many ways—can also make teaching more effective in elementary andsecondary schools.
THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF WEB-BASED AND CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION: A META-ANALYSISSitzmann, T., Kraiger, K., Stewart, D., & Wisher,(2006) Meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the effectiveness of Web-based instruction (WBI) relative to classroom instruction (CI) and to examine moderators of the comparative effectiveness of the 2 delivery media. The overall results indicated WBI was 6% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge, the 2 delivery media were equally effective for teaching procedural knowledge, and trainees were equally satisfied with WBI and CI. However, WBI and CI were equally effective for teaching declarative knowledge when the same instructional methods were used to deliver both WBI and CI, suggesting media effects are spurious and supporting Clark's (1983, 1994)theory. Finally, WBI was 19% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge when Web-based trainees were provided with control, in long courses, and when trainees practiced the training material and received feedback during training. Study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
References • Kulik, J. A. (2003). Effects of using instructional technology in elementary and secondary schools: What controlled evaluation studies say. Retrieved January 3, 2014 fromhttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.207.3105. • Sitzmann, T., Kraiger, K., Stewart, D., & Wisher, R. (2006). The comparative effectiveness of web‐based and classroom instruction: A meta‐analysis.Personnel Psychology, 59(3), 623-664. Retrieved January 3, 2014 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi.
References • Kulik, J. A., Bangert, R. L., & Williams, G. W. (1983). Effects of computer-based teaching on secondary school students. Journal of Educational psychology, 75(1), 19. Retrieved January 3, 2014 from http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/edu/75/1/19/ • Goldberg, A., Russell, M., & Cook, A. (2003). The effect of computers on student writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992 to 2002. The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 2(1). Retrieved January 3, 2014 from https://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1661 • Swan, K. (2003). Learning effectiveness online: What the research tells us.Elements of quality online education, practice and direction, 4, 13-47. Retrieved January 3, 2014 from http://cguevara.commons.gc.cuny.edu/files/2009/09/learningeffectiveness.pdf