World War II. SOL 10 & 11. Totalitarian Government On Vocab. List!!!. Complete control over the people!!!!! EX) Joseph Stalin—Russia Benito Mussolini—Italy Adolf Hitler—Germany. Joseph Stalin—Russia On Vocab list!!!. Collective Farms: Five Year Plans: Purges:.
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World War II SOL 10 & 11
Totalitarian GovernmentOn Vocab. List!!! • Complete control over the people!!!!! EX) Joseph Stalin—Russia Benito Mussolini—Italy Adolf Hitler—Germany
Joseph Stalin—RussiaOn Vocab list!!! Collective Farms: Five Year Plans: Purges: • Gov’t took control of all farms • To Industrialize • Eliminate any threats to power
Benito Mussolini—ItalyOn Vocab List • Estab. Fascist Party 1921 • King appointed him head of govt • Black Shirts
Adolf Hitler—GermanyOn Vocab list!!! • Nazi Party • Mein Kampf • Aryans = master race • Unify all German speaking ppl
Japan’s Invasion of Manchuria (1931) • Wanted more living space • League of Nations’ condemned Japan & Japan left League
Japan’s invasion of Manchuria (1931) Hitler’s Response: • 1933 pulled out of League • 1935 built up military • 1936 went into Rhineland • League did nothing!
Japan’s Invasion of Manchuria (1931) USA’s Response: • Refused to recognize Japan’s conquests in Asia • Imposed an embargo on exports of oil & steel to Japan
Mussolini Invades Ethiopia • Ethiopia asked League for help!!!! • League did NOTHING!!!!!!!!!
Spanish Civil War • King of Spain abdicated throne • New republic w/reforms • Spanish Nationalists (or Falange) led by Francisco Franco • Germany and Italy sent aid to help Franco • France, U.S., and Great Britain send aid to counter Franco • Franco became dictator—but did not join Rome-Berlin Axis
Neutrality Acts—USAOn Vocab list!! • 1935 couldn’t sell arms/ loan $$ to nations @ war Isolationism
Hitler's Acts of Aggression • 1938 (aga. Treaty) • 1938 • Blitzkrieg “lightening war” • Sep. 1, 1939 • Began WWII Austria Sudetenland Poland
Hitler's Acts of Aggression • Withdrew from the League in 1933 • Hitler announced rearm his country • 1936—troops sent into Rhineland • Germany and Italy formed treaty to prevent the spread of communism • Hitler wanted Anschluss-union—with Austria • Hitler convinced Austrian chancellor to appoint Nazis to key positions
Hitler's Acts of Aggression • Austria appealed to the west—but ignored • March 1938—Austria annexed • Czechoslovakia—3 million Germans in Sudetenland—Hitler demanded this region—09/12/1939—give it to him or he would take by force • Neville Chamberlain—British Prime Minister—set a meeting—accepted Hitler’s demands • Policy of appeasement—granting concessions to maintain peace—does not work with Hitler!!!
Hitler's Acts of Aggression • Hitler not satisfied—raised demands • Mussolini offered compromise—give Hitler Sudetenland and Hitler promised not to take any more territory and to settle w/negotiation • Chamberlain thought—peace preserved; Hitler invaded Czech. 03/15/1939 • Hitler can not be trusted
Hitler's Acts of Aggression • Hitler moved into Lithuania • Mussolini invaded Albania • Britain and France prepared for war • They approached Stalin—feared Hitler would make an alliance • Stalin negotiating with both sides • August 1939—Nazi-Soviet Pact
Nazi-Soviet Pact • Why would these two enemies become allies? • For Germany, there would be no war on two fronts • For Russia, it would give them time to prepare for war, because they knew that Germany would eventually want to invade the U.S.S.R. to conquer all of Europe
Nazi-Soviet Pact cont… • Non-aggression Pact • Germany and U.S.S.R. would not attack one another and would remain neutral if the other were attacked • Two sides would divide Europe after the war
WWII Begins!! • Spark began in Poland • Hitler wanted Port of Danzig in Polish Corridor (used to belong to Germany) • 09/01/1939—Germany annexed Danzig • Air raids over Poland • 2 days later France and Great Britain declared war on Germany
Germany Attacks--Poland • Blitzkrieg: German for lightning war—with air raids • On Poland • Panzer units—German tanks and armored trucks on ground • Poles surrendered within one month
Soviets attack!! • Soviets march into Poland from east—disappears from map!! • Soviets then attacked Finland
Germany’s turn • April 9, 1940---invaded Denmark and Norway (w/help from collaborators)—people willing to help their country’s enemies • Hitler took Scandinavia for an outlet to the Atlantic—not get blocked in like WWI
Great Britain feels pressure • Hitler moved in “a little too close for comfort” • People angry at Neville Chamberlain and appeasement—resigned • May 1940—Winston Churchill in
Fall of France • British rescued Allies from across English Channel (Miracle at Dunkirk) • Italy invaded France from South • Germans closed in on Paris from North—Hitler failed to attack retreating troops—Axis mistake—morale booster for Allies
Battle of Britain • Germans trying to destroy British Royal Air Force (RAF) Used Luftwaffe (German air force) • RAF used radar & Hitler called off invasion! http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/furniture/in_depth/uk/2000/battle_of_britain/battle_intro_map.gif&imgrefurl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2000/battle_of_britain/default.stm&h=258&w=300&sz=10&tbnid=WJtePzktSl921M:&tbnh=95&tbnw=111&hl=en&start=3&prev=/images%3Fq%3DBattle%2Bof%2BBritain%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8
WWII and the U.S. • U.S. divided at beginning of war • Isolationists • Cash and Carry • U.S. gave Britain 50 old warships • Enacts a draft law—the firs during peacetime • U.S. passed Lend-Lease Act—war materials on credit • Roosevelt/Churchill draft Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter—goals of war for the U.S. and G.B. • No territorial gain • No boundary changes w/o consent of people • Gave people the right to choose form of gov’t • Equal trade rights • Economic cooperation for benefit of citizens • Freedom from fear • Freedom of seas • Abolish use of force—use system of general security (international organization) • By Nov. 1941—the U.S. was a non-belligerent ally
Hitler turns to new territories • By fall 1940-Germany held almost all of western Europe; he now turns to Balkans • June 1941—Germany had all Balkans except Turkey (signed a neutrality agreement w/Hitler) • Next target—Suez Canal—Turkey refused to let troops through to oil fields of middle east
Hitler—Africa?? • Started N. African campaign • Led by Gen. Erwin Rommel—the “Desert Fox” • Drove British out of Libya and into Egypt
Alliances begin to fade Soviets angry about Hitler’s claims in the Balkans—their sphere of influence Hitler told the Soviets to get their own Sphere of Influence in Asia June 22, 1941—Germany invaded the Soviet Union—w/o formal declaration of war
Soviet Union invaded!! • Soviets driven back past Moscow and Leningrad • Used scorched-earth policy • Pushed Stalin back to Stalingrad—used the winter to their advantage to weaken the Germans
Hitler’s “New Order” • Master Plan = to create a “New Order” for Europe • Single, political, and economic system ruled from Berlin by the Aryan race • Hitler wanted S.U. for food and raw materials and planned to starve the Soviets—they were inferior to the Slavs • (planned to eliminate inferior elements—esp. Jews)
Hitler’s “New Order” cont… • Annihilation of all European Jews—Final Solution • Holocaust = systematic destruction of almost an entire race • Genocide = extermination • Placed in ghettos, then concentration camps where 6 million of 11 were killed—Anti-Semitism
Hitler’s “New Order” cont… • 1938—ghettos and Kristalnackt or night of glass- shops and synagogues and Jews attacked • 2000 businesses • 600 synagogues • 100 Jews killed • 35,000 arrested
Japan’s Aggressions • Wanted control of East Asia—started with small islands • 1940 Joined Germany and Italy • U.S. responded w/sanctions • Tensions mounted when Hideki Tojo established a militaristic gov’t
Pearl HarborOn Vocab. List!! • Japan attacked while negotiating peace w/U.S. • Air Attack w/out warning • Dec. 7, 1941 • “a date that will live in infamy”--FDR
Soviets vs. Germans • Soviets trapped Germans in Stalingrad in fall of 1942 • Hitler’s orders—to fight to the death, but surrendered in Jan. 1943
Africa • Allied reinforcements to El Alamein (Egypt) to help British—pushed back to Libya and Tunisia; Americans came in from Morocco and Algeria (forces led by Gen. Eisenhower) • May 1943 Axis powers in N. Africa surrendered
Help for Soviet Union • Churchill called for southern invasion 1943—Operation Torch • Allies took Sicily-then to mainland • Mussolini forced to resign • People of Italy surrendered and Italy declared war on Germany--Sept. 1943
Island Hopping--Chester Nimitz • Carried the war closer to Japan • Series of victories • Began w/ Battle of Midway • “Miracle of Midway” • Japanese victory would have allowed Japan to invade Hawaii • Battles enabled Allies to begin an offensive against Japan
Pacific Theater • Battle of Coral Sea—May 1942—Japanese suffered their first set-back • 2 battles enabled Allies to begin an offensive against Japan • Soloman Islands—Allied invasion of Japanese controlled territory
Douglas MacArthurOn Vocab List!! • Commander of Allied Powers in the Pacific • Accepted surrender from Emperor Hirohito
Victory in Europe • Operation Overlord • Normandy—D-Day; June 6, 1944—largest amphibious landing • Battle of the Bulge • Mussolini—captured, shot, hanged upside down in the middle of town • Feb. 1945—Yalta Conference • Soviets took Berlin—Hitler found out and committed suicide on April 30, 1945 • New German gov’t surrendered on May 8, 1945—Victory in Europe Day!!!